What is the Relationship Between Abused and Neglected Children and Crime? Author`s Name

Institution`s Name
Abstract
Of late, a lot of analysts have focused upon on children who are vulnerable to child abuse and neglect. Despite the fact, there are no methodically reliable predictions of the nationwide existence of the children vulnerable to child abuse and neglect, the present data implies many American children are impacted by such events. This paper delves into the limitations of the existing databases and proposes a various methodologies for the compilation of dependable and suitable existence database, which utilizes data from various empirical studies. There is ample proof from different research studies to conclude that child abuse and neglect has detrimental impacts on the children. The particular impacts may vary and is conditional on depending on a range of variables, for example the children`s age group, the character and gravity and criticalness of the violence, the presence of many other risk factors in the children`s lives, namely poverty, parental substance abuse, and the issue whether the children directly affected by their peers. Generally, childhood susceptibility to child abuse and neglect can be linked to greater violent behaviors, greater psychological and emotional problems for example despair, anxieties, reduced levels of social ability, and mediocre educational performance. A methodically reliable research studies on the existence and impacts of childhood susceptibilities to child abuse and neglect is vital for the promotion and the initiation of efficiency programs and to facilitate the suitable channels of public and private funding. This paper identifies certain methods that can be espoused to create the research capability vital to realize the required data.
Abused & neglected children: An Overview
It has been estimated that more than 900,000 children experienced child abuse or neglect in 2006 in the USA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Despite the fact physical injuries amongst the children may or may not be instantly evident, abuse and neglect can have major consequences the society that continue for lifetimes.
The consequences of children affected by abuse and neglect is generally deliberated with regard to physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal effects and these factors are not generally deliberated independently. Physical impacts, for example harm to a child`s growing brain, can have psychological impacts for cognitive delays or emotional troubles. Psychological complexities are usually considered as high-risk actions. Depression and anxiety could cause people to smoke, drug abuse, or overeating. High-risk activities, on the other hand, can bring about lasting physical health syndromes for example STDs, cancer, and obesity.
Factors Affecting Child Abuse & Neglect
Indeed, it is not true that all those children who were affected by abuse and neglect would experience lasting impacts. Many consequences of individual cases of children differ considerably and are impacted by various factors that may include:
* The child`s age group and developmental status at the time of occurrence of abuse or neglect
* The type of physical abuse
* The rate, extent, and gravity of the abuse and neglect
* The correlation between the children and their abusers (English et al., 2005 Chalk, Gibbons, & Scarupa, 2002)
The contemporary analysts have deliberated extensively the reason that in a particular condition, some children undergo lasting effects of abuse and neglect whilst other children remained unharmed. Resilience is the capability in which children deal successfully the negative experiences. There are many protective and contributory factors may give rise to an abused or neglected child`s resilience. These may comprise of individual features, for example optimism, self-worth, astuteness, creativeness, humor, and freedom, in addition to espousal of peers and individual effects. Many other factors might comprise of the children`s social background and the family`s accessibility to social care. Moreover, community welfare, and accessibility to safe schools and suitable health care, can be considered as useful protective and supportive factors (Fraser & Terzian, 2005).
Physical Health Consequences
The instant physical effects of abuse or neglect amongst children could be rather insignificant or severe. However, in some instanced the physical effects are short term yet, the trauma and pain they create for children should not be underrated. In the meantime, the lasting impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health is on the anvil and is being explored extensively. In accordance with the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, over 25% of children who had been under the foster care for over a year had chronic health troubles (ACF/OPRE, 2004a).
Psychological Consequences
The instant psychological impacts of abuse and neglect amongst children comprise of loneliness, worries, and an incapability to have trusts. These features can have long lasting effects on young children, comprising of low self-worth, gloominess, and interrelationship problems. Many analysts have noted relationships between child abuse and neglect as follows:
Difficulties during infancy
Depression and withdrawal syndromes were quite prevalent amongst children as young as three years old who faced psychological, physical, or environmental neglect (Dubowitz, Papas, Black, & Starr, 2002).
Poor mental & emotional health
In a longitudinal research, about 80% percent of children who were affected by abuse and neglect faced the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychological problem till the age of 21. These children showed many mental problems that included despair, nervousness, eating problems, and suicide cases (Silverman, Reinherz, & Giaconia, 1996). Other psychological and emotional syndromes related to abuse and neglect amongst children comprise of fear syndrome, dissociative syndrome, ADHD, gloominess, irritation, PTSD, and reactive attachment syndrome (Teicher, 2000 De Bellis & Thomas, 2003 Springer, Sheridan, Kuo, & Carnes, 2007).
Cognitive difficulties
A study noted that children lodged in out-of-home care as a result of abuse or neglect have a tendency to score below the general population on assessments of cognitive capacity, language growth, and academic accomplishments (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). Similarly, a 1999 study also noted a correlation between proven child maltreatment and poor academic achievements and classroom functioning for school children (Zolotor, Kotch, Dufort, Winsor, & Catellier, 1999).
Social difficulties
It is noted that those children who face rejection or neglect or other such abuses are more probable to espouse antisocial activities as they mature. Parental neglect and abuse is also linked with borderline personality disorders and other criminal behaviors (Schore, 2003).
Behavioral Consequences
It is noted that not all sufferers of child abuse and neglect would face behavioral impacts. Nevertheless, behavioral problems seem to be more evident amongst this group or at a younger age. A study of children in the age group of 3 to 5 in foster care noted that these children exhibited clinical or borderline levels of behavioral troubles at a greater rate than twice that of the general population (ACF/OPRE, 2004b). In later life, the child abuse and neglect are evident in the following cases:
Difficulties during adolescence
Studies have found abused and neglected children to be at least 25 percent more likely to experience problems such as criminal behavior, youth pregnancy, poor academic results, drug misuse, and psychological health complexities (Kelley, Thornberry, & Smith, 1997). On the other hand, there are studies that suggest abused and neglected children are more expected to involve in sexual activities as they attain the adolescent age, hence increasing their probabilities of achieving a Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) (Johnson, Rew, & Sternglanz, 2006).
Juvenile criminal behavior & adult criminality
In a study of a National Institute of Justice study, abused and neglected children were more than 10 times more expected to be apprehended for delinquent behavior as a youth, and about 3 times more probable to be detained for delinquent and violent behavior as an adult, and as well more than 3 times more probable to be detained in many types of violent crimes (English, Widom, & Brandford, 2004).
Alcohol & other drug abuse
Many research studies constantly show a greater probability that abused and neglected children would resort to smoking, alcohol abuse, and consuming illicit drugs throughout their lives (Dube et al., 2001). In accordance with a study from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, about 66% of people in drug treatment programs confirmed been abused in their childhood (Swan, 1998).
Abusive behavior
Many parents report that they have been abused throughout their own childhoods. It is projected just about 33% of abused and neglected children would like to abuse their own children (Prevent Child Abuse New York, 2003).
Societal Impacts
Although, the child abuse and neglect generally take place within the family, its impact is also felt in the society which has to pay the price for child abuse and neglect, as regards both direct and indirect costs.
Direct costs
Direct costs comprise of those related to the maintenance of a child welfare programs to assess and react to various allegations of child abuse and neglect, in addition to costs incurred by the judiciary, police, health, and mental health care systems. A study report by Prevent Child Abuse America (2001) estimated the costs stood at $24 billion annually.
Indirect costs
These are the costs which are incurred as a result of long-term economic impacts of child abuse and neglect. These comprise of costs related to juvenile delinquency mental ailments, substance misuse, as well as domestic violence. They can also bring loss of efficiency as a result of job loss and underemployment, the cost of special education services, and the greater utilization of the health care system. Prevent Child Abuse America (2001) estimated these costs at greater than $69 billion annually.
Other Factors Contributing to Child Abuse & Neglect
Apart from the above-mentioned factors contributing to child Abuse and Neglect, some other factors are:
Perpetrators
It is well-known that child abuse and neglect take place in all cultural, racial, professional, and socioeconomic categories. The parents` chances of abusing their children are hardly ever the consequence of any single aspect, however rather outcomes from such a combination of situations and behavior genres. Whilst some specific features may be common amongst perpetrators, the simple existence of circumstances or unique characteristics do not imply that abuse of children would always take place (DePanfilis & Salus, 1992).
Family Factors
Children in most of the single-parent households may experience a greater risk of physical abuse and neglect despite the fact the impacts of poverty, tension, social segregation, and needs of various supports are all the underlying features. Risk is alleviated for the children of single mothers when the children have an association with their fathers. In two-parent households, the risks of abuse are increased if the parents have bad relationships with each other. Neglected children`s homes are much affected by the disorder.
Environmental Factors
Those families residing in areas affected by poverty and joblessness are at greater risk of child abuse and neglect. The type of social support accessible to parents, together with community behaviors regarding raising children and using punishment, can also be the factors that create the risk of child abuse.
The relationship between abused and neglected children and crime: An Introduction
Child mistreatment comprises of both child abuse and child neglect and is believed to key social trouble facing the society. In the USA, child abuse is the major cause of death from injuries in children above 1 year old. The mortality rate amongst children is below 15 years old is 2.4/100,000 and 1,500 children died annually (Institute of Medicine, 1999). In accordance with the US Department of Health and Human Services (1993), over a million children experienced abuse of different types annually. In two studies to deal with the issue, Paxson and Waldfogel (1999, 2002) point out that the child abuse and neglect is more prevalent in those households which have poorer socioeconomic status, hence such abuses likely worsens the disparities between the rich and the poor children.
Child abuse and neglect may also cause long-term impacts for survivors. The crime is considered as one most costly consequence of child abuse. However, there is continuing debate regarding the scope for which the “cycle of violence” in which child abuse causes future crimes has been validated. Various economic models of crime generally concentrate on the juvenile criminal`s human capital and cost and benefit computations (Freeman 1999).
There have been a lot of new prospective longitudinal researches of child abuse and neglect, however, these studies generally rely on organizational database and have restricted controls for other features of households (see Ireland et al. 2002 Stouthamer-Loeber et al. 2001). As well, organizational database on child abuse and neglects relating to crime describe only a part of these activities since not all events are recorded or seized by government departments. Lastly, those families for whom there are official data may be those that are more probable to come to the focus of official departments, and as a result may be an unrepresentative sample of households in which child abuse takes place (Smith & Thornberry 1995). Rebellon and Van Gundy (2005) show that there were a handful of researches that comprised of nationwide representative samples. Other researchers for example, Lansford et al. 2002, 2007) depend on many mothers` studies regarding whether the children have been victimized. A problem with such research studies is that the analysts are ethically and legally responsible to intervene if the mistreatment of children is identified.
Potential factors in the child abuse and criminal behavior relationship
Following are some of the salient factors in the child abuse and delinquency behavior:
Running away from home:
The fleeing of the home is considered as a result of abuse and a risk factor for criminal behavior (Chesney-Lind, 2001). Those children experiencing abuse at home generally flee, looking for safety from perilous family discords (Thompson, Bender, & Kim, in press). The studies relating to homeless youth proves the high incidence of bodily misuse, assaults, and neglect (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, & Williams, in press) that comprise about 40% stating being assaulted by a custodian. The abused children don`t only flee their home more frequently, but they generally avoid being at home longer than non-abused children (Kurtz, Jarvis, & Kurtz, 1991). Apart from fleeing their homes, many children find themselves homeless after being kicked out from their home by their abusive parents (Thompson, Bender, & Kim, in press Thompson, Bender, Windsor et al., In press).
When these children run away, they become more susceptible of taking part in various criminal behaviors (Baron, 2003 Baron & Hartnagel, 1998). Moreover, they become part of the absconder youth community which in fact delinquent peer groups involved in criminal activities (Warr, 2002). Hence, the longer period of times these children are on the streets without any proper supervision and in the group of criminal people, the more anti-social behavior they acquire (Heinze, Toro, & Urberg, 2004). A lot of fleeing youth criminal activities are endeavoring to survive monetarily, safeguard themselves, and deal with many risks of living on the streets (Bender, Thompson, McManus, Lantry, & Flynn, 2007). As well, these youths are engaged in drug sales, burglary, robbery, shoplifting, and prostitution in contrast to their housed peers (Baron, 2003 Baron & Hartnagel, 1998). Delinquency cases are also more prevalent amongst street youths with 25% of these fleeing youths being attacked by somebody and 22% being shot by someone (Kipke, Montgomery, Simon, & Iverson, 1997).
Mental health problems:
Mental health problems are another potential means of linking mistreatment and criminal activities. Following the experiencing of mistreatment, youths generally show mental health syndromes (Kaplan et al., 1999). Youth who come across of violent events, whether physical, sexual or their observations, shows high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder and gloominess (Kilpatrick et al., 2003). Youths with histories of physical abuse and neglect are at particularly high-risk for despair (Turner, Finkelhor, & Ormrod, 2006). Sexual abuse, still strongly related to mental health syndromes, is more probable to cause PTSD, low self-worth, and nervousness (Turner et al., 2006).
Mental health symptoms consequently cause engagement in criminal activities (Ulzen & Hamilton, 1998). In a detailed research of detained and imprisoned youths (Teplin, Abram, McClelland, Dulcan, & Mericle, 2002) noted that 66% of males and 75% of females fulfilled the standards for at least one emotional syndrome. In distinguishing the two key categories of emotional disorders Ulzen and Hamilton (1998) noted internalizing syndromes to be particularly rampant amongst imprisoned youths though the events of externalizing syndromes were also quite significant.
Of internalizing syndromes, PTSD incidents amongst criminal youths are far more than incidents noted in community samples (Wood, Foy, Layne, Pynoos, & James, 2002b).
Many analysts note youths with PTSD have a greater occurrence of impulse control troubles than those without PTSD, possibly interfering with the rehabilitation of young criminals (Giaconia et al., 2000). Remarkably, behavioral problems are also frequent amongst these youths Teplin et al.`s (2002) research found that above 40% of imprisoned youths fulfilled the criteria for violent behavior syndromes.
Substance abuse problems:
Substance abuse problems are other factors which explain the abuse criminal behavior relationship. Abused youths are more expected to involve in substance abuse, dependence and substance use troubles eventually in contrast to non-abused youths (Kilpatrick et al., 2003). Youths who experience sexual abuse, particularly, are at greater risk for both alcohol and drug troubles (Bergen et al., 2004 Garnefski & Arends, 1998). Many analysts imply that substance abuse may operate as a coping method or self-medicating action amongst abused youths, helping them to cope with their victimization (Arnold, 1990).
The correlation between substance use and criminal behavior is most remarkable, nevertheless, amongst imprisoned youths where 50% of males and nearly half of females fulfill the standards for having a substance use syndromes (Teplin et al., 2002). Incidents of substance abuse troubles are noted to be even greater amongst youth sexual perpetrators (Ryan, Miyoshi, Metzner, Krugman, & Fryer, 1996). When delinquent, continuous drug consumption has been related with criminal behavior recidivism, hence preventing desistance of disruptive behavior (Chang et al., 2003 Hussong, Curran, Moffitt, Caspi, & Carrig, 2004).
School disengagement:
School troubles imply the potential factor relating to abuse to criminal behavior. In view of the disruptive home environments in which abuses generally take place, it is remarkable that abused youths generally have problems with focusing on education and do not go to school frequently (Acoca, 1998 Kaplan et al., 1999). High school students who face constant risks and direct harms are more probable to quit school and get poor grades (Chang et al. 2003). When it comes to absenteeism, sexual abuse is stressed as a particularly harmful risk factor as sexually abused youth are being absentee from school 3 – 4 times more often than non-abused children (Garnefski & Arends, 1998).
Youths who are unsuccessful to complete school and those who are truant are at greater risk for criminal behavior (Chang et al., 2003 Lederman et al., 2004). This correlation holds good even for the most critical and violent criminal activities (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). In addition, youths in foster care as consequence of experiences of abuse are considerably more expected to become criminal if they are stopped from school during their stay in foster care (Ryan, Testa, & Zhai, 2008), and youths that age out of the child welfare system are more probable to have long lasting criminal behavior trajectories if they are not registered in school (Ryan, Hernandez, & Herz, 2007).
Association with deviant peers:
This potential intervening factor is related to disruptive peer groups. Abused youths are more probable to make friendships with abnormal children (Kaplan et al., 1999). Youths who face violence generally have problems controlling their emotions and this dysregulation make socializing with traditional peers hard (Schwartz & Proctor, 2000). These youths are generally marginalized from traditional peer groups as a result of their intimidating and delinquent activities (Dishion, Patterson, & Stoolmiller, 1991) and as a result of becoming `loners` or join abnormal peer groups. For instance, criminal peers, in the form of gangsters, usually work as proxy families to youths from violent and disruptive homes (Brunson & Miller, 2001). As well, abused youth, separated from their parents through child welfare system engagement, is generally placed in group foster homes where they are vulnerable to harmful peer impacts, making them further endangered for criminal activities (Wilson & Woods, 2006). Hence, having difficulty making and maintaining affirmative friendships or being drawn towards normal peers, abused youth are more probable to become engaged with “the wrong crowd.”
Crime is generally identified as a social behavior, and youths with a more criminal acquaintance show greater criminal behaviors themselves (Warr, 2002). Hence, relating to abnormal peers is significantly projecting for youths` own engagement in criminal activities (Herrenkohl et al., 2001 Piquero, Gover, MacDonald, & Piquero, 2005), and is a leading predictor of becoming a critical and violent criminal (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998).
Abused & neglected children and crime: A Literature Review
Criminal behavior analysts have studied with much interest in familial processes and crime. Especially, much focus has been given to the effect of physical abuse on criminal behavior (Doerner, 1988 McCord, 1983 Widom, 1989). On the other hand, little study has focused on the harmful impacts of childhood neglect on adolescent criminal behavior. Although it is much more significant that fields of child maltreatment are interrelated (Ireland, Smith, & Thornberry, 2002 Smith & Thornberry, 1995), little empirical focus has been given to the relationship on the child neglect, on crime. The research studies that take into account the differential impacts of several types of child maltreatment on criminal behavior note that neglected children have greater incidence of violence, property crime, and general criminal behavior than those children who are physically abused (Zingraff et al., 1993) or have analogous incidences of crimes in contrast to physically abuse children (McCord, 1983 Widom, 1989).
Past knowledge of abuse in childhood has proposed healthy emotional and behavioral development measures (Egeland, Yates, Appleyard, & van Dulman, 2002 Maughan & Cicchetti, 2002), comprising of the growth of vigorous peer relationships (Bolger & Patterson, 2001 Mueller & Silverman, 1989) and the growth of self-discipline (Avakame, 1998 Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990). Accordingly, neglected and abused children face restricted parent-child relationships, which are generally lacking focus and compassionate, and consequently are improbable to manage their emotions, curb impulsiveness, or decide suitable peers. The mainstream research on child maltreatment and criminal behavior has motivated on the character of mistreatment and/or the chronicity of maltreatment as interpreter of critical and unremitting criminal behavior (Ireland et al. 2002 Smith & Thornberry, 1995). Various studies show that chronic maltreated youths are more probable to be dangerous criminals (Smith & Thornberry, 1995 Zingraff et al., 1993) than children with less constant abuse.
There is generally neglected body of research of the procedure through which abuse, and specifically child neglect, affect juvenile consequences like self-control, peer abandonment, and finally, criminal behavior. Ignored or neglected children, whether regularly or constantly rejected, are improbable to create the capability to oppose criminal inducements and avoid enjoyment and as such might be abandoned by conventional peers. Hence potential, longitudinal, community study samples of mothers and their children, adds to the rising list of research on child abuse and criminal behavior that examines the process by which childhood neglect impacts youth criminal behavior as a result of self-control and peer abandonment.
Child Abuse & Delinquency
A plethora of research on child neglect and criminal behavior by many analysts such as (Lemmon, 1999 Luntz Weiler & Spatz-Widom, 1996 Stouthamer-Loeber et al., 2002 Zingraff et al., 1993) proposes that those children who are ignored commonly as probable to be engaged in criminal behavior as other abused children (Lemmon, 1999). The effects of child abuse and neglect impact on delinquent behavior nevertheless, is hardly ever evaluated quite apart from other forms of child mistreatment, and as a result it is quite complex to understand to what range child negligence harms in the future youth maturity and the increased prospects of the of criminal behavior. In addition, various studies on child neglect and criminal behavior has been narrowed mainly the research related only on officially recorded data on such children (Lemmon, 1999 Luntz Weiler & Spatz-Widom, 1996 Stouthamer-Loeber et al., 2002 Zingraff et al., 1993), that brings on the wide open questions regarding those children who are not much ignored or those who escape the notice of state records.
In case of the developmental studies on neglect and abuse in early childhood implies that those children who are neglected and abused before the preschool age have especially harmful developmental consequences of childhood and youth, though there is a lack of longitudinal studies on the harmful impacts of child abuse into the adolescence period (Hildyard & Wolfe, 2002 Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick, 2002).
However, studies relating to child abuse and criminal behavior generally show that abused and neglected children are more probable to be involved in grave delinquent behaviors (Smith & Thornberry, 1995 Stouthamer-Loeber et al., 2002), involve in aggression (Benda & Corwyn, 2002 Kruttschnitt, Ward, & Sheble, 1987), or are apprehended (Smith & Thornberry, 1995 Zingraff et al., 1993) than non-abused children.
These delinquent consequences are more evident amongst children who have been constantly abused for longer periods of times (Ireland et al., 2002). Moreover, the studies point out a clear relationship between child misuse and criminal behavior, yet the methodological limitations have definitely this field of research.
Nevertheless, there are some studies that used very small samples, making the generalizability of the results unsure, whilst other studies on child abuse and criminal behavior did not comprise of control groups of non-maltreated children. New research has solved many of these procedural troubles, and the relationship between mistreatment and criminal behaviors seems simple (Ireland et al., 2002 Raskin White & Spatz Widom, 2003). Nevertheless, analysts have emphasized the need for research on child mistreatment that uses community samples as well as observer studies of child neglect (Gershater-Molko, Lutzker, & Sherman, 2003).
In addition, the studies also propose that criminal behavior differs from the forms of abuse. Though the tendency is that the forms of abuse usually overlap for example neglected children are generally physically abused. The study that differentiates between forms of abuse finds that physically mistreated or neglected children are generally most critically offending (Kruttschnitt et al., 1987 Smith & Thornberry, 1995 Zingraff et al., 1993).
Furthermore, the analysts have looked for possible enlightenment for the relationship between abuse and criminal behavior. They noted that abuse was related to weak social controls (Brezina, 1998 Herrenkohl, Huang, Tajima, & Whitney, 2003), meager expressive regulations (Maughan & Cicchetti, 2002), and the achievement of abnormal values (Brezina, 1998 Herrenkohl et al. 2003). In addition, the relationship between child abuse and criminal behavior was quite potent for children in unbroken homes (Stouthamer-Loeber et al., 2002), and the relationship was a consequence of attachment to mother (Benda & Corwyn, 2002), good educational achievements (Zingraff, Leiter, Johnsen, & Myers, 1994), and family structure (Zingraff et al. 1994). Though theorists and analysts have generally implied that knowledge with abuse in childhood negatively impact child and adolescent growth (Egeland et al., 2002 Hildyard & Wolfe, 2002), little research has been performed to validate this claim with longitudinal data into youth. To comprehensively recognize the lasting effects of abuse, there is a need to study how misuse impacts development and criminal behavior in children.
A gap in understanding of the abuse and criminal behavior relationship
There is a discrepancy in understanding of the abuse – criminal behavior relationship in children In spite of the fact analysts have made great endeavors in proving the existence and intensity of the abuse – criminal behavior relationship, a number of noted analysts have asked for greater analysis of the factors that relate with the abuses and neglect with that of criminal behavior (Smith & Thornberry, 1995). Nevertheless, some analysts have carried out research analyses that provide relationships of the child abuse and neglect with that of the criminal behavior. A possible cause for this discrepancy is the variance of the concerned studies into two classifications of writing that have occurred separately. While, a body of child welfare research has focused into various impacts of child abuse and mistreatment (Bergen et al., 2004 Ford, 2002). In contrast, criminal behavior studies have found various causes of aggressive behavior and other forms of delinquency (Chang et al., 2003 McClellan et al., 1997). A number of significant causes were studied in these domains of the factors examined in these two fields of research that interact a lot.
The diverse problems the children experience as a result of abuse and neglect exposed them at great risk of becoming criminals. So far, not much focus has been given to incorporate work from these two distinct fields of studies.
Research Methodology
Data for this research method derived from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-Child). It was a nationwide longitudinal sample of youth aged 10 to 21. The NLSY79 Child sample generally stands for a sample of children born to a countrywide representative sample of women who were between the ages of 31 and 38 on January 1, 2000.
In these analyses, it is independently assessed the impacts of educational neglect, physical neglect, and emotional neglect, net of the effects of self-control, peer rejection, spanking, and demographic variables including gender, race, age, family structure, and poverty status. All of the neglect and demographic activities were assessed when the children were in the age group of 5 to 21 years old. The activities of child neglect were taken from assessments and are either mother self-reports or are observer studies of maternal behaviors.
In view of the fact child neglect has been considered as most commonly related to improved levels of critical criminal behavior, there is a usage of measure of violence in this analysis methodology. Violence was evaluated by a two-item complex variable in which the children were asked if they were involved in a school work fight or hit or threatened to hit another person. Responses were thus coded. Violence, emotional, physical neglect, as well as rejection were all noted and recorded before the analyses (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1997, p. 85).
Analysis & Findings
The findings suggest that physically abused children are more expected to be discarded by their peers. Moreover, these findings elucidate principal developmental procedures that impact the relationship between child neglect and abuse and violence. As well, it showed that in community samples, with self- and observer reports of neglect, the harmful impacts of neglect on child development are evident. This finding is important as it implies that although milder types of child neglect, the harmful consequences exist.
Furthermore, there might be plentiful of children facing the ill effects of child neglect who might never be identified by child service workers or teachers since their neglect is not critical. The research findings also show that many children endangered for criminal behavior as a result of child neglect and abuse might be even harder to identify as their neglect may appear more gentle-simply not discussing frequently with the child.
Conclusions
There has been significant research concerning the impacts of child abuse and neglect relating to crime and criminal behaviors. These consequences differ considerably conditional on the conditions of the abuse and neglect, individual traits of the child, and the child`s existing environment. These impacts may be light or severe it may vanish after a short period of time or it may be lasting throughout the life. Consequently, it affects the child physically, psychologically, behaviorally, or in some ways in all the three combinations. Ultimately, it may result in occurrence of various crimes committed by the children in various walks of life. Such crimes have detrimental effects not only the children but also to families, health care systems, human services, and educational systems, and the society as a whole.
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Annotated Bibliography
Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation. (ACF/OPRE) (2004a). Who are the children in foster care? NSCAW Research Brief No. 1.
The Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation studies Administration for Children and Families (ACF) programs and the populations they provide means of strong research and evaluation projects. These comprise of assessment of existing programs, evaluations of innovative methods to helping poor children and households, research syntheses and descriptive and tentative researches.
Arnold, R. A. (1990). Women of color: Processes of victimization and criminalization of black women. Social Justice, 17, 153−166.
This research paper includes interviews of 60 African American incarcerated females and shows that childhood victimization correlate with criminal behavior. Arnold`s research shows that among the African American females, running away from home in order to avoid being victimized and illicit drug use as a way to dull emotional pain were common themes.
Avakame, E. F. (1998). Intergenerational transmission of violence, self-control and conjugal violence: A comparative analysis of physical violence and psychological aggression. Violence and Victims, 13, 301-316.
This research paper sought to establish whether (a) violence in families of origin affects males` psychological aggression toward wives, and (b) whether the intergenerational transmission effect is solely direct or mediated by Gottfredson and Hirsch`s concept of self-control. The current research extends these questions to females` psychological aggression as well as males` and females` physical violence. The models were estimated using data from the 1975 National Family Violence Survey.
Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences, and criminal behavior: street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 40 (4), 403−425.
This research paper studies street youth living in downtown Vancouver focused specifically on this aspect. The author conducted 400 interviews with street youth on different types of crimes, including property crime, drug use and violent crime. He found a relationship between low self-control and violent behavior, with low self-control being the most powerful predictor of violent crimes.
Baron, S. W., & Hartnagel, T. F. (1998). Street youth and criminal violence. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 35 (2), 166−192.
This research papers delves into the roles of different subcultural, economic, and victimization factors in the delinquent behavior of 200 homeless male street youths. Findings shows that factors related with the street subculture, including long-term homelessness and criminal peers, raise the respondent`s risk for violence on the street and provide rules regarding honor, protection, and vengeance.
Benda, B. B., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). The effect of abuse in childhood and in adolescence on violence among adolescents. Youth & Society, 33, 339-365.
This research paper studies 1,031 children from five public high schools and examined the relative effects of elements of control, strain, and social learning theories on violence among younger (< 16 years of age) and older (>=16 years of age) adolescents. Of special interest were the differential effects of adult abuse throughout childhood and during adolescence on violence of these two age groups.
Bender, K., Thompson, S. J., McManus, H., Lantry, J., & Flynn, P. M. (2007). Capacity for survival: Exploring the strengths of homeless street youth. Child and Youth Care Forum, 36, 25−42.
This research critique aims to understand the behaviors of the young adults regarding their substance use and its effect on their lives. A mixed methods study using semi structured interviews and self-report means was performed with 87 emerging adults who received homeless services from a community drop-in center.
Bergen, H. A., Martin, G., Richardson, A. S., Allison, S., & Roeger, L. (2004). Sexual abuse antisocial behavior and substance use: Gender differences in young community adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 34−41.
This research paper studies gender-specific relationships between self-reported sexual abuse, antisocial behavior and substance use in a large community sample of youths.
Bolger, K. E., & Patterson, C. J. (2001). Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to peer rejection. Child Development, 72, 549-568.
This longitudinal paper studies aggressive behavior and social withdrawal were examined among a representative community sample of 107 maltreated children and an equal number of non-maltreated children. Results showed that chronic maltreatment was associated with heightened risk of rejection by peers. Chronically maltreated children were more expected to be rejected by peers repeatedly across multiple years from childhood to early adolescence. Maltreatment chronicity was also linked to higher levels of children`s violent behavior, as reported by peers, teachers, and children themselves.
Brezina, T. (1998). Adolescent maltreatment and delinquency: The question of intervening processes. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 35 (1), 71-99.
A large body of research indicates that adolescent maltreatment, like child maltreatment, is linked to high levels of criminal behavior. Criminologists generally explains this relationship by invoking one of three primary frameworks in criminological theory: “Social control” theorists argue that adolescent maltreatment disrupts important delinquency-inhibiting ties “social learning” theorists emphasize the deviant values and patterns of behavior that are learned from those that administer maltreatment whereas “social-psychological strain” theorists emphasize the criminogenic emotions likely to arise among maltreated adolescents, such as anger and resentment. This study utilizes national survey data to assess the relative merits of these conflicting explanations.
Chalk, R., Gibbons, A., & Scarupa, H. J. (2002). The multiple dimensions of child abuse and neglect: New insights into an old problem. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
This research paper draws on available data and research studies to sum up what is known about these outcomes in several critical areas namely physical and mental health cognitive and educational attainment and social and behavioral development. It also briefly outlines the dimensions and severity of the child maltreatment problem and the demographic characteristics of its victims.
Chang, J. J., Chen, J. J., & Brownson, R. C. (2003). The role of repeat victimization in adolescent delinquent behaviors and recidivism. Journal of Adolescent Health, 32, 272−280.
This study reports the occurrence of adolescent victimization and delinquency recidivism and to assess the relationship between repeat victimization and delinquency recidivism in a large, population-based sample of high school seniors.
Chesney-Lind, M. (2001). `Out of sight, out of mind`: Girls in the juvenile justice system. In C. M. Renzetti, & L. Goodstein (Eds.), Women, crime, and criminal justice (pp. 27−43). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.
This research paper studies the problems in girls` delinquent behavior that bring them to the focus of the juvenile justice system, and the gender bias that typifies the system.
DePanfilis, D., & Salus, M. (1992). A coordinated response to child abuse and neglect: A basic manual. [DHHS Publication No. (ACF) 92-30362.] Washington, DC: National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.
This manual provides the foundation for the series and deals with community prevention, identification, and treatment efforts. As a companion to modernized manuals for each profession, this manual is aimed to be used by all professionals involved in child protection: CPS, police agencies, education, mental health, legal services, and health care and early childhood professionals. The manual also provide general information to anyone who is concerned about the problem of child mistreatment.
Doerner, W. G. (1988). Child maltreatment seriousness and juvenile delinquency. Youth & Society, 19, 197-234.
Although the researchers have delved upon documenting the adverse consequences of child abuse and neglect, the impact of maltreatment upon delinquent behavior is considered as unresolved issue. This research paper contends that the main cause of such state of affairs is that methodical flaws harm the literature.
Dubowitz, H., Papas, M. A., Black, M. M., & Starr, R. H., Jr. (2002). Child neglect: Outcomes in high-risk urban preschoolers. Pediatrics, 109, 1100-1107.
This paper examines the individual and cumulative relationships among physical, psychological, and environmental neglect and children`s behavior and development at age 3, and the impact on changes in children`s behavior and development between ages 3 and 5.
Egeland, B., Yates, T., Appleyard, K., & van Dulman, M. (2002). The long-term consequences of maltreatment in the early years: A developmental pathway model for antisocial behavior. Children`s Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 5 (4), 249-260.
This research paper examines the developmental pathways linking abuse in early childhood and disruptive behavior in youths using data from a longitudinal study of high-risk children and their households.
Ford, J. D. (2002). Traumatic victimization in childhood and persistent problems with oppositional-defiance. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 6, 25−58.
Disruptive behavior disorders impacts up to 10% of all children and 33% of those referred for psychiatric care. This paper discusses traumatic victimization as a factor in disruptive behavior disorders.
Freeman, R. (1999). “The Economics of Crime.” In Handbook of Labor Economics, ed. D. Card and O. Ashenfelter. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Crime is a major activity in the USA, with the consequences for poverty and the allocation of public and private funds. The economics of crime concentrates on the effect of motivations on delinquent behavior, the way decisions relate in a market environment and the use of a benefit-cost framework to evaluate other strategies to reduce crime. This research paper shows that most empirical evidence supports the role of motivations in the criminal decision: legitimate labor market experiences, sanctions that include imprisonment, and the risk of detention all influence decisions to involve in crime.
Garnefski, N., & Arends, E. (1998). Sexual abuse and adolescent maladjustment: Differences between male and female victims. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 99−107.
This research paper analyzes the data from a large representative community sample of youths were used to analyze the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and adolescent functioning. Emotional problems, behavioral problems, suicidal feelings and behavior of boys and girls were compared to those in a matched control group of boys and girls without such a history. Both sexually abused boys and girls reported considerably more emotional problems, behavioral problems, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts than their non-abused youths.