The Meaning of Okanagan Valley Wineries and their Brands The Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) Author`s Name

Institution`s Name
The Global Wine industry: An Overview
Wine is manufactured from a wide range of undeveloped means, and is made both formally and informally all over the world. The wine industry manufacturing alcoholic drinks may espouse many forms (Jernigan, 2000).
The wine industry is comprised of manufacturers, wholesalers and distributors, point-of-sale firms and hospitality industries for example hotels or cafés that provide alcohol. The winemaking and distribution departments in the industry are strongly related to farming, transportation, capital goods manufacturing and packaging companies. Its marketing wing departments are involved strongly in the advertising fields, sports and other leisure activities. In various countries of the world there are varying levels of vertical integration of wine manufacturing, distribution and sales, with a general development towards this motivated by economic liberalization and associated regional and global trade accords. Nevertheless, there are some instances of national political realities that at times influence pressure in the contrary direction.
Moreover, there is also rising incorporation across many wine products. Especially, wine marketers are being hired by other sectors of the wine industry, yet the wine is starting to get closer in the development of global brand identities and distribution systems. As a wine analyst recently stated, `The wine business is no longer a production-driven business as it has been traditionally it`s fast becoming a marketing-driven business` (Barry, 2007). Among the 10 leading global wine marketers, no less than three have major assets in beer and/or spirits. The world`s leading wine producer, US-based Constellation.
Brands also promote both beer and spirits. At the international, informal or `unrecorded` wine production, trade and sale are quite significant and it is approximately 66% of alcohol used in the Indian subcontinent, just about 50% of consumption in Africa and 33% of consumption in Eastern Europe and Latin America (Rehm et al, 2003). In accordance with the wine industry-funded International Center for Alcohol Policies, branded alcoholic beverages comprised of 38% of recorded alcohol usage globally (ICAP, 2006). However, domestic markets for wine are usually caused by these globalized alcoholic drinks, brands that have national or global marketing campaigns and accompanying features (Jernigan, 2001).
As regards globalized wine sector, some leading companies rule this sector. The twenty six leading alcoholic beverage firms had a total net income of $155 billion in 2005, and a total operating profit of $26 billion. The 10 leading alcoholic beverage suppliers comprise about 48% of sales of globalized brands in 2005. All together, these wine companies also comprised 66% of production of globalized alcohol.
Ratings of the global alcohol companies by net revenue/turnover instead of volume show the value of distilled spirits in relation to beer on the global market. Globalization in the wine industry has a tendency to lead to improved focus of ownership and better dependence on marketing. As a study of multinational survival in the global alcohol industry noted, `. . . in non-science-based industries such as alcoholic beverages . . . brands and marketing knowledge rather than technological innovation are central in explaining the growth and survival of multinational firms` (Lopes, 2003). Over the past few decades the global wine industry has become much more rigorous. The largest of the global alcohol marketers was rated amongst the world`s biggest companies.
Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) & Wine Brand Images
To understand consumers` explanations of brand image has become growingly significant as companies have tried to improve brand equity. This paper introduces the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), which discusses the theoretical grounding, and studies its use as a means for studying brand image management activities of the wine industry.
As firms attempt to develop and sustain stronger wine brands and build brand equity to keep a viable advantage in the market, understanding of the clients` insights becomes growingly significant. Dobni and Zinkhan (1990) study various methods to evaluate brand image, observing that the development has been towards applying quantitative methods. Qualitative methods, comprising of having customers` involved in thought listing processes, explain a brand`s characteristic, and stated “what the brand thinks of you, as the customer” also have been used in brand image studies (Blaxton, 1992 Boivin, 1986 Durgee & Stuart, 1987) and brand extension researches (Aaker & Keller, 1990 Park, Milberg & Lawson, 1986). The mainstream of these research methods depends on verbal communication to get clients` data. Research studies on communication, on the other strand, implies that more than 80% of all human communication is nonverbal, and Biel (1993, p. 73) stated that “brand images have a strong nonverbal component.” Consequently, there seems to be an inequity between how clients consider and discuss about brands and how the analysts understand clients` views.
The Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique utilizes both visual and sensory images to help better explain the significance of brands. In view of the fact ZMET has clients collecting their own pictures the clients that are in control of the incentives utilized in the guided discussions. Such client controls have a lot of advantages. Firstly, client-created images are particularly significant since what the eye considers when it is encoding a series of data eventually, comprised of the viewing of a static picture for example a periodical ad or a point-of-purchase advertisement, is motivated by the clients acquaintance, viewpoints, or expectations. Secondly, necessitating clients to gather the stimuli raises the chances of revealing significant, though earlier hasty customer issues.
Besides utilizing images and pictures as incentives to invoke theories, ZMET is dependent on verbalization to create and record images the clients wanted to gather though were incapable to do so as a consequence of time or geographic limitations. The ZMET technique also applies an image bank generated by various analysts. Other image capture methods are also useful and the best blend of methods would differ with the product-utilization circumstances, the target viewers, and the aim and objective of the research studies. As well, ZMET makes detailed utilization of non-visual sensory images.
Moreover, Zaltman`s research showed various visual models that affect clients` thoughts and behaviors. The technique showed that emotions are interlinked to each other with rational processes in affecting with client behaviors. Zaltman as such designed ZMET to apply metaphors to affect both opinion and thoughts of the customers.
As well, ZMET has the prospective for recognizing many features of brand image management. It can be helpful in invoking and perceiving the sensory metaphors related to brand images. These metaphors possible are valuable in various marketing mix decisions that comprise of developing advertising strategies, establishing the shape and type of packaging, and deciding distribution mediums. The data also might be helpful for studying various brand extensions. A double application of ZMET would be required – one for analyzing the existing brand image and another for studying the potential extension. Analysts are therefore able to study the two maps to establish their image-congruity. Analogous maps suggest that the potential extension would be corresponding to the existing brand image, whilst dissimilar maps might be the indications that clients would have many difficulties incorporating the extension into their existing knowledge database. ZMET has also been useful for brand placement. Moreover, a dual application would be required, the first to evaluate the existing brand image and the latter to evaluate an “ideal” product image. By studying the parallel and disparities between the two maps there emerge many issues or features of the image that necessitates many changes. Implementing only the latter application, the “ideal” product image, would be useful in creating a new brand.
Application of ZMET for various target viewers can create each segment`s consensus map. Thus, the marketing group would be capable to find out whether a single strategy or many strategies were required to discuss with the groups. Evidently, there are several issues concerning to brand image and other aspects of consumer behavior and marketing that could be taken in hand with the application of ZMET. As such many contemporary companies and organizations make use of ZMET tools to express the conscious and unconscious thoughts that customer`s desire and make rational assessments of those views and feelings with the existing experience they are presented by conducting various audits and through illustrations and images.
In sum, the ZMET applies qualitative methods to bring forth the metaphors, paradigms and mental models that promote customers` thinking and views, in addition to quantitative researches to provide data for marketing mix decisions and segmentation methodologies.
Sensory Relationships of Wines
Wine is considered as one of the most sensory things in the world and one of the natural things in the world that has been brought to the utmost perfection. In addition it presents a wider range for pleasure and enjoyment than, perhaps, any other purely sensory thing which might be bought. Many people familiarize wines and practice the education of one`s taste with great pleasure all of a lifetime, the taste becoming more knowledgeable and capable of pleasure and having constantly raising enjoyment and appreciation of wine although the kidneys may damage, the toes become painful, and the finger joints harden, till at last, the physician recommends complete abstinence from it.
Wines: Its Images & Ratings
Summerhill Cipes Ice Sparkling, Okanagan Valley BC, NV
Pretty is a pinky/salmony glory with berries and apricot aromas. It`s off-dry, a consequence of the icewine dosage with sharp citrus and berry flavors, sweet yet tart.
2010 Summerhill Pyramid Winery, Ehrenfelser, Okanagan Valley
This wine is 100% Ehrenfelser originated organic wineries and fermented with indigenous yeasts. Alcohol is 11.0%. It is a very light straw color with a sweet, floral nose mixed with tropical tones.
2009 Stag`s Hollow, The Heritage Block, Okanagan Valley
This is a mixture contains Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and 5Cabernet Sauvignon sourced from estate and purchased fruit. It was fermented with specific yeasts and experienced malolactic fermentation prior to aging about 18 months in American and French oak. Its color is a light to medium cherry ruby. In the mouth this Bordeaux blend showed some violet fruit then a touch of tart, red fruit. It has licorice flavors and cherry notes.
Marta`s Vineyard Malbec Signature Reserve Vintage 1999
Brand: Marta`s Vineyard
Vintage: 1999
Category: Red Wine
Country: Argentina
Region: Mendoza
Grapes: Malbec
Alcohol level: 13%
Overall Rating: 9/10
Famiglia Terraccia Chianti Riserva 2007
Brand: Famiglia Terraccia
Vintage: 2007
Category: Red Wine
Country: Italy
Region: Chianti
Grapes: Sangiovese and Canaiolo
Alcohol level: 13%
Overall Rating: 8/10
Chateau Clos Renon Bordeaux Superieur 2007
Brand: Château Clos Renon
Vintage: 2007
Category: Red Wine
Country: France
Region: Bordeaux
Grapes: Bordeaux Blend
Alcohol level: 12.5%
Overall Rating: 8/10
2010 Maison Bleue, Au Contraire, Yakima Valley
This is 100% Chardonnay sourced from a 9-acre block of the French Creek winery set up in 1980. It was fermented and aged sur-lie for approximately 6 months in a 50% stainless steel and 50% oak. 50% of the wine endured malolactic fermentation. Alcohol is about 14%. It has a light yellowish color. The light nose shows white fruit. This wine is very particular with light, focused tasting. It is a little dusty. The acidity pushes the whole wine even as it puts on a little weight. There is a lengthy aftertaste.
Faustino Crianza Rioja 2007
Brand: Faustino
Vintage: 2007
Category: Red Wine
Country: Spain
Region: Rioja
Grapes: Tempranillo
Alcohol level: 13.5%Overall Rating: 7/10
Marques de Carano Gran Reserva 2002
Brand: Marcelo Morales Calderon
Vintage: 2002
Category: Red Wine
Country: Spain
Region: Cariñena
Grapes: Tempranillo and Garnahar
Alcohol level: 12.5%
Overall Rating: 7/10
Minervois 2007
Brand: Minervois
Vintage: 2007
Category: Red Wine
Country: France
Region: Languedoc-Roussillon
Grapes: Syrah, Grenache, Carignan
Alcohol level: 12.5%
Overall Rating: 7/10
Buenos Aires Reserve 2009 Bonarda Malbec
Brand: Buenos Aires
Vintage: No
Category: Red Wine
Country: Argentina
Region: Mendoza
Grapes: Bonarda Malbec
Alcohol level: 13%
Overall Rating: 6/10
2010 Maison Bleue, Au Contraire, Yakima Valley
This wine is 100% Chardonnay was originated from a 9 acre block of the French Creek Vineyard planted in 1980. It was fermented and aged sur-lie for 7 months in a 50% stainless steel and 50% oak. 50% of the wine endured fermentation. Alcohol is about 13.0%. Its color is a light yellow.
Wines: Managerial Implications
Despite the fact wine usage is on the rise in various parts of the New World wine markets, it has been waning in the majority of Old World markets for the last few decades. Wine making has become well-recognized tool for regional growth. Nevertheless, at the international level wine making is rising faster than wine usage for a growingly challenging wine business environment.
The growing mass of wine marketing studies has recognized disparities in the wine consumer behavior of people, between various generations, amongst diverse racial groups and in various countries. It is also possible to recognize various markets relying on how they buy and use wine and the meanings it has for customers.
Other studies have analyzed the way in which various markets utilize wine on various occasions and in diverse circumstances. What is evident from all such studies is that there is no such thing as the wine market nor is there a characteristic wine customer. In fact the wine market is comprised of various, at times very niche, sectors that are affected by demographics, psychographics and the circumstances in which it is being used.
The research which delves into wine customers and their behaviors is becoming all the time more sophisticated in order it now comprises of analyses of personality, levels of engagement and the situation of motivations for buying wine. Nevertheless, much of this study is still not related to those that need it primarily i.e. The wineries themselves and those that manage its sale and supply. Whilst there are many other parts of the wine supply and distribution chains are also unaware about how their business success is interrelated with the success of the chain as a whole in meeting consumer demands. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the mainstream wine marketing research comes from the Australian content (Lockshin & Spawton, 2001) and consequently some aspects of the universal wine market yet to be understood completely.
Lockshin (2003, p. 5) asks `What do we know empirically about wine marketing?` He stated that: `Wine marketing includes many sub-areas of research. Traditionally, we would speak of the 4 Ps of marketing, product, pricing, promotion, and placement and their concomitant areas in wine marketing, such as branding, new product development, pricing, public relations, managing the sales force, and distribution. Beyond this, the area of wine marketing should include specialty topics, such as consumer behaviour for wine, wine tourism and cellar door (direct sales), supply chain management from the vineyard and supplier to the end user, labeling and packaging, wine events, medals and show awards, promotional activities, exporting including market choice and channel within market choice, selecting and managing agents, protecting intellectual property (names and logos), and world regulation of wine and alcohol` (Lockshin, 2003, p. 5)
In view of the difficult nature of the product itself and of the market for wine, as well the fact that many studies has only recently started to understand wine consumer behavior, it is obvious that wine is considered as one of the most difficult consumer products to market.
The Okanagan Valley (OKV) Wine Industry: An Introduction
The climatic conditions of Lake Okanagan and the existence of various geographical factors make the Okanagan Valley (OKV) an attractive place for the wine industry. The valley ranges about 155 kilometers from Lake Country in the North to Osoyoos in the South one is bordered with the USA, in a two hour drive, and ranges to maximum kilometers in breadth. As well, there exists a large area of grape growing in the South from East to West, which stretches for about a further hundred kilometers. More than 90% of British Columbia`s tree fruit land and 95% of its grape productions are in the Okanagan Valley.
Historically, grape and wine manufacturing industry in BC and, especially, the OKV can be found in 1859. Primarily, the valley was well-known for the production of apple, when the first commercial orchard was set up in Penticton in 1890. At that time, tree fruit orchards were thought to be more profitable and handy against grapes because of harsh wintry conditions (Nichol, 1983).
In those days wine was manufactured through the use of loganberries which grew in Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley. In the olden days there were large varieties of grapes in British Columbia, as well as in rest of Canadian regions in contrast to other European regions. This was as a consequence of the supposed requirement of frost-durability. It is known that in the 1920s, J.W. Hughes a migrant began started grapes on commercial scales in the Pioneer Vineyard. The start of the Depression era caused some farmers to make wine from the apples. In 1934, they found that it was not commercial to produce wine from apple compared to wine from grapes.
In 1932, the Growers Wine Company started producing wine from grapes in the OKV under the label of Beau Sejour (Rowe, 1970). The people disliked the taste of the early wine, hence the large quantity of the early wine was sent to into sherry for consumption. Following the Second World War, grapes were generally imported from USA for mixing with the native varieties. The farmers employed workers to sow white seedless grape however as ruling of the court case it changed the name to Rhine Castle. Hence, the espousal of European names was extensive at the British Columbia wineries (Schreiner, 2000). In 1950s, hybrid grape varieties were sown in British Columbia, causing a general mixture of 80% and hybrid 20%. In 1952, about 425 acres were allocated to grapes in it 383 was allocated to American hybrid genres. In 1960, it was about 572 acres.
In the twentieth century, Growers wine was bought by Castle Wines, who manufactured wines under the name Ste. Michelle (Adams, 1992). The objective of both the BC and Ontario vineyards was aimed towards mass production at low cost, high alcohol ingredients to help local markets.
There was however strong emphasis in the development of the grape industry. In view of his roots in the grape industry, it is not surprising that W.A.C. Bennett, the leader of the province, promoted local sourcing of grapes, a seemingly quid pro quo for the government`s part in supplying wineries` products (Ross, 1995). Thus, the BC Liquor Control and Licensing Board tried to raise the domestic consumption of grapes in the wine industry, hence raising the needed allocation from 25-50% in 1962, and about 70% in 1965. Consequently, the outcomes were remarkable, with grape production rising by about 400% in British Columbia in 1967, and the general local grape content of wine rose to nearly 80%, in 1969. This resulted in better vertical integration between wineries and local dealers, advancing towards long-standing deals. Moreover, it raised pressure for better quality of grapes, as wineries had to modify their past reliance on better quality of American grapes (Adams, 1992 Kingsbury, 2004).
In 1968, the Inkameep winery started producing Riesling and Ehrenfelser grapes imported from European countries remarkably, the basis of the vineyard was the outcome of collaboration with the department of Indian Affairs and national grape juice and wine distributor Andrés Wines. All over this era, the bulk of grapes being sown in the OKV remained the Labrusca variety. There was however strong cynicism that vinifera grapes could be successful, when one writer stated “the Okanagan climate (due to the harshness of winters) is marginal for the production of grapes suitable for quality wine… as yet the limited plantings (of quality grapes) provide scant evidence that it will be possible to consistently produce high sugar, low acid, quality grapes from such vines… (Miles 1981, 98, notes are mine).” The aim towards dessert type wines was corresponding with the capacities of the Labrusca and hybrid grapes, promoting wineries and farmers working for yield and robustness from winter, rather than excellence (Miles, 1981).
British Columbia grape supply was developed only in the OKV, with a 1978 study showed that 43% of the total provincial land of 3,000 acres was around Oliver, Osoyoos, Cawston and Keremeos. Just about 2% of these groups had been European vinifera, with the remaining being hybrid grapes. The governmental safeguards that were in operation in the Second World War in BC liquor shops started fritter away in 1974 as the imported wines increased (Schreiner, 2000). In addition, there was a crisis of overproduction of grapes in the 1970s that led to government and organizations` endeavors to enhance grape types with the aim of development of a profitable wine industry corresponding with changing flavors.
Moreover, the consumers` outlooks towards wine began to change radically, with a new generation asking for higher quality wine with less in alcohol contents (Senate Standing Committee 1978). These wines were famous as “mod” or “pop” wines in that they had low alcohol contents as well as carbonation (Miles, 1981). This caused a rise in import shares from 15% in 1970 to 31% by 1977 (Senate Standing Committee, 1978), asking the government and industry to modify the policies. Early policies responses consist of packaging improvements, like changing labels and to espouse European style bottling and corks (Senate Standing Committee, 1978).
All these endeavors led to the growth of capacity to manufacture quality wine based on a limited series of agricultural undertakings from in the 1960s and 1970s, comprising of the plantation of Johannisberg Riesling by Jordan and Ste Michelle, the successor to Growers. The grape industry in British Columbia promoted the production of Baby Duck champagne, in response to different alterations in the local domestic towards less sweet and lesser alcohol content wine, utilizing hybrid grapes (Schreiner, 2000 Hickton, 2005). The base for durable changes was laid in 1974 when the Canadian bought 4000 vinifera plants and carried out an agro-experiment at different regions in British Columbia.
In a 1978 research of the industry observes that the $3 price ceiling British Columbia wine could not exceed (Senate Standing Committee, 1978): `The troubles that were faced by British Columbia wineries in getting better prices for their top quality wines showed the market condition few decades` ago. Then, British Columbia wines were considered undeniably of poor quality of available European wines. The government liquor promotion laws at present prevent the capacity of the wineries to persuade its consumers that their high priced products were a sign of better quality of their products.`
Nevertheless, the need of synchronization between wineries and grape growers caused overproduction of grapes and an incapability to enhance quality, for example lesser utilization of European varieties and poor sites. This created some apprehensions regarding the role of the British Columbia Grape Marketing Board. The Marketing Board resulted in faster growth in grape production as a result of the significant rise in production from 1100 tons in 1958 to 10,000 in 1972, as many tree fruit planters changed over, partially in reaction to rising demand by various wineries. The British Columbia Grape Growers Association had interlinked members of the British Columbia Tree Fruit Marketing Board in order that they realized from understanding that such boards could control the industry. Accordingly, they established a marketing board with the authorization of the government in 1970s. The aim of the Marketing Board created standard prices per ton by different grape varieties each year.
Yet, in an unusual change, the grape planters registered with the Board before 1977 got Class A licenses for existing land, implying that wineries were forced to buy their grapes first, though they were of the particular variety. The Marketing Board generated strong opposition amongst wineries who as a consequence lost their capability to independently deal with grape growers, and as a result, they asserted, to create lasting relationships to improve the quality. Nor were endeavors made to distinguish varieties for the meso-climates all over the OKV.
These troubles as such repeated with tests in 1977 by the domestic tree-fruit juicer to manufacture grape juice production with the assistance of federal government price support. The $500,000 investment needed a minimum of 900 tons of grapes to break even. Nevertheless, only 370 of the required 1,000 tons of grapes were provided by planters, showing a need of harmonization between planters, and wineries (Senate Standing Committee, 1978). These matters showed a general conclusion that grape and labor expenses would price British Columbia wines over imports without radical changes (Ross, 1995, 32).
Moreover, The Senate report observed that British Columbia wineries had generally promoted their own wine products. About 85% of wine was sold to the British Columbia market, and 15% were sold in other Canadian provinces, although there were keen to export to Asian markets for instance Japan. In 1976, import agents set up a 42 member board to tackle the provincially-operated Liquor Distribution Board. This caused the wineries to use the British Columbia Wine Council to market their products, start to create data regarding the industry, create better affiliation with the grape farmers, and put pressure on the government.
In 1980, there were hard times in the wine industry, with none of the wineries showing a profit that year (Miles, 1981). From 1970-80, the imported wine sales rose more than 500%, and by 1988 imported wine sales comprised 53% of all wine sales in British Columbia. While, sales increases were mostly in white wines, causing an oversupply of red grapes (Adams, 1992). The British Columbia wineries were successful, and major alterations were made for market controls that further motivated the industry (Senate Standing Committee, 1978, 38-9):
The alterations followed through from a 1978 Provincial law that helped the creation of small-scale wineries. Liquor board mark-ups for them were established at 15% in sales in Liquor Board stores and 0 for direct sales to clients and licensees.
The British Columbia Estate Winery Association was established in 1984 as the OKV Estate Wineries Association, however modified its name when a non-Valley winery came into existence. The original membership was 5 wineries who collaborated to set up retail stores (Kingsbury, 2004).
As well, the new policies labeled the type as “farm gate winery” to mean those manufacturing between 500-5,000 cases annually. Farm wineries were forecasted to develop up to 75% of their own grapes and utilize 100% British Columbia grapes. In case of estate wineries, farm wineries were permitted to set up on-site outlets. Since 1998, there were 13 farm wineries in the Okanagan Valley, and 18 all over the British Columbia (Hackett, 1998). Both of these features were strongly attached to an idea of an agri-tourism base for the wine industry.
There are many leisure activities like skiing, hiking, golf, and beaches are provided to make the Okanagan Valley an outstanding tourism site. The main idea, then, was that the wineries would integrate forces with the fruit stands, and country markets, etc., To provide a pastoral experience for urban tourists (Hackett, 1998).
In summary, the wine industry and the government assiduously worked to outline the preconditions for the change of a low-value, low quality production framework to one that could enhance significantly and charge greater prices through a mix of upgrading and safety, with stress on estate wineries that could enhance the quality.
In 1981, the top priced wine was Casabello`s Pinot Chardonnay, costing $5.60 (Miles, 1981). There were also major signs that tourism could be a basis of development. One of the majors in 1980 showed about 25,000 tourists and the majority of sales were on site (Miles, 1981).
The wine industry looked with envy at the case of improvement in Washington State and Oregon that took place at the same time, and had caused instant sales of quality wine that could contend with California. This improvement was noted moving to better grape types and extension from university collaborators. Since 1978 Senate report affirms: “However, the future of a healthy B.C. wine industry will not be determined by promotional activity alone. If a wine is below standard it sells only once. In the long run domestic wines must compete successfully with imports on the basis of quality and price if they are to survive in the market place (Senate Standing Committee 1978).” Other than suggesting a grape and wine division be created by the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, a plan, comprising how to get the wines into suitable distributional channels for British Columbia, had yet to be resolved (Senate Standing Committee, 1978).
The consequence of successful test was the basis, between 1977-1982, of top Canadian estate wineries. In addition, 1979 noticed the launching of French vinifera types. In spite of these major growths the OKV wine group continued a relative remote place, with handful number of wineries of negligible size. In 1988, the estate wineries in OKV created more than half a million liters, comprising about 2% of wine sales in British Columbia. However, these same wineries were the basis for future achievements and the effectiveness of public-private collaboration in the initial stages of wine industry growth (Hickton, 2005 Adams, 1992).
Until the OKWFS, there was no direct agency regarding wine industry tourism. The OKWFS was established in 1988 by a group of 6 wineries and tourism firms that focused on the organization of a series of food and wine culinary occasions. The major one was the Okanagan Fall Wine Festival, which comprise of a competition amongst local wines (Kingsbury, 2004). A need for coordination and planning also show some contradictory values, as, for instance, a Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries spokesperson expressed regarding about the loss of farming land to wineries (Hackett, 1998).
Various market alterations and policy reactions cause the rise of the OKV winemaking industry. Whilst relative benefits consider useful conditions for the winemaking, modifications were vital in the policy environment to set up an industry. The preliminary measure of policy concerns government controls of domestic grape growing and wine industries. The second group of policies, created by market alterations in addition to the Canadian government signing a trade accord with the USA aimed to focus on improvements. The policies included a mediocre however still significant aspect of safeguards, huge investment in setting up estate wineries, and tourism sponsorship. One scientist suggested that climatic variations considered the launching of new varieties, allowing improvement, which seems credible, and was strengthened by various venerable interviewees who observed variations in the prospects for the growth of vinifera grapes in different regions earlier thought to be quite cold. The results of these endeavors are major success in both the production and income of the industry, and the Valley has the prospects of immense wealth.
Moreover, a huge development of the wine industry happened as industrial giants and institutional sponsors have taken noticed the development and invested in properties. As well, a huge number of people showed the extensive change of fruit farmers into grape growers and grape planters setting up their own wineries. There were also a remarkably significant number of winery proprietors who launched the business with no background in the wine industry that is not essential to become wealthy, however due to enthusiasm for wine. A lot of people termed the dedication that has caused them to devote their life savings towards the idyllic vision of operating a winery and vineyard. In contrast, long-timers in the industry cautioned if the rapid growth of the market decelerated, there could be a considerable slump in economic activities.
There were rumors that a lot of wineries being offered for sale that included one long-standing family business with many wineries announcing insolvency. Moreover, there is definitely a slow identification by new comers in this field regarding the difficult and turbulent factors of the wine industry. Many people stated that it was really more like farming than winemaking, and conditional to all the uncertainties of that trade. This has caused many of the smaller wineries, in addition to a rising fraction of absentee investors, to employ consultants to operate their wineries. Competition and consumer likings should be permitted to decide who in the industry sustains however, there are still considerable urgent matters that both the public sector and the industry would require facing in the projected future for the industry as a whole to be successful in British Columbia.
Market Conditions & Vulnerabilities
Hope-Ross (2006) stated that in the Canadian wine industry, the average use of wine rose considerably over time, with a rise in the national average use between 1983-95 of 3.36 liters per adult. Such a rise can be as a result of varying consumer trends affected by an improved quality of wines that resulted from better availability of US wines. This development must be considered in the perspective as outlined by Hope-Ross noted: “Canada is still very much a beer-drinking nation. But more and more, wines are making inroads. In 1993, each Canadian adult bought, on average, 10.6 liters of wine. By 2005, sales had increased from 3.6 liters to 14.2 liters per adult. At the same time, beer sales fell from 91.3 liters per adult to 88.1 liters, a decline of 3.2 liters” (Hope-Ross, 2006).
British Columbia supply has shown the positive trajectory of demand as The BC Wine Institute puts the value of the 2009 grape crop at C$40, 205,170. The rise in yearly wine sales between 1992 and 2010, from 6.8 million dollars to 182.1 million dollars, pointed out the greater significance of the provincial and domestic market for British Columbia wines. In 2007 BC wines stood at 19.9 % of total BC wine sales and Canadian wines altogether showed 42.4% of total BC wine sales. Of the industry is supported by the rise in land for vinifera grapes, tonnage outputs and value of the production. It is quite remarkable to see the rise for a brief period and the range of the growth as generally being taking place in OKV, irrespective the size of the winery.
This paper introduced the Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET), which discusses the theoretical grounding, and studies its use as a means for studying brand image management activities of the wine industry.
Application of ZMET for various target viewers can create each segment`s consensus map. Thus, the marketing group would be capable to find out whether a single strategy or many strategies were required to discuss with the groups. Evidently, there are several issues concerning to brand image and other aspects of consumer behavior and marketing that could be taken in hand with the application of ZMET. As such many contemporary companies and organizations make use of ZMET tools to express the conscious and unconscious thoughts that customer`s desire and make rational assessments of those views and feelings with the existing experience they are presented by conducting various audits and through illustrations and images.
In sum, the ZMET applies qualitative methods to bring forth the metaphors, paradigms and mental models that promote customers` thinking and views, in addition to quantitative researches to provide data for marketing mix decisions and segmentation methodologies.
Aaker, David A. & Keller, Kevin L. (1990). “Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions”. Journal of Marketing, 54, (January), pp. 27-41.
Adams, D. (1992). The Estimation of the Degree of Pricing Competition in the British Columbia Wine Industry (1957-1986). M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, UBC.
Barry, K. (2007). Global wine report: new world order: premiumization, megadeals reshape business. Impact 37: 1, 6 – 10.
Biel, Alexander L. (1993). “Converting Image Into Equity,” in Brand Equity & Advertising: Advertising`s Role in Building Strong Brands, Eds. David A. Aaker and Alexander L. Biel, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 67-82.
Blaxton, M. (1992). “Beyond Brand Personality: Building Brand Relationships,” in Brand Equity & Advertising: Advertising`s Role in Building Strong Brands, Eds. David A. Aaker and Alexander L. Biel, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 113-124.
Boivin, Y. (1986). “A Free Response Approach to the Measurement of Brand Perceptions.” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 3, 11-17.
Dobni, D. & Zinkhan, G. (1990). “In Search of Brand Image: A Foundation Analysis,” in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, Eds. Marvin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 100-119.
Durgee, J.F., & Stuart, R.W. (1987). “Advertising Symbols and Brand Names That Best Represent Key Product Meanings.” The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4, 3 (Summer), 15-24
Hackett, Nancy C. (1998). Vines, Wines, and Visitors: A Case Study of Agricultural Diversification into Winery Tourism. Research Project. MA of Natural Resource Management, School of Resource and Environmental Management. Report No. 214. Simon Fraser University.
Hickton, C. (2005). Transformations in the Okanagan Wine Industry and Reflections on Communication, Diffusion of Innovation and Social Capital in the case of the Okanagan Wine Cluster. Extended essays, MA in Communications, Simon Fraser University.
Hope-Ross, P. (2006). From the Vine to the Glass: Canada`s Grape and Wine Industry, Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) (2006). The Structure of the Beverage Alcohol Industry. Report no. 9. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies.
Jernigan, D. H. (2000). Applying the commodity chain analysis of changing modes of alcohol supply in a developing country. Addiction 95: 465 – 75.
Jernigan, D. H. (2001). Cultural vessels: alcohol and the evolution of the marketing-driven commodity chain. Diss Abstr Int 62: 349 – 50A.
Kingsbury, A. (2004). Cooperative Fermentation: Formal Cooperation, Business Interest Associations, and the Okanagan Wine Industry. M.A. Thesis, Dept. of Geography, Simon Fraser University.
Lockshin, L. (2003). Consumer purchasing behaviour for wine: what we know and where we are going. Marchés et Marketing du Vin Cahier de Recherche (Markets and Marketing of Wine Research Paper) No. 57-03 August 2003, Centre de recherche de Bordeaux Ecole de Management, Bordeaux.
Lockshin, L., & Spawton, T. (2001). `Using involvement and brand equity to develop a wine tourism strategy`. International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 72-81.
Lopes, T. D. S. (2003). The growth and survival of multinationals in the global alcoholic beverages industry. Enterprise Society 4: 592 – 8.
Miles, Christopher A. (1981). The Feasibility of Establishing an Investor Owned Estate Winery in British Columbia. Research Project, MBA, Simon Fraser University.
Nichol, Alexander E. (1983). Wines and Vines of British Columbia. Vancouver: Bottesini Press.
Park, C.W., Jaworski, B.J., & MacInnis, D.J. (1986). “Strategic Brand Concept-Image Management.” Journal of Marketing, 50 (October), 135-145.
Rehm, J., Rehn, N., Room, R., Monteiro, M., Gmel, G., Jernigan, D. et al. (2003). The global distribution and average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. Eur Addict Res 9: 147 – 56.
Ross, Kimberly J. (1995). An Analysis of the Effect of the Free Trade Agreement on Profitability in the British Columbia Wine Industry. M.S. Thesis. Dept. of Agricultural Economics. University of British Columbia.
Rowe, P. (1970). The Wines of Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.
Schreiner, J. (2000). History of the British Columbia Wine Industry, 8-9 in BC Wine Country: The Book, Kelowna: Blue Moose Publications.
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, BC Legislature (1978). The Grape and Wine Industries of British Columbia: A Commodity Report. Aug. Phase III Research Report. Victoria: BC Govt.