Quantitative Methods

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02/08/2012
Customer Delight
Investigating the relationship between Customer Perceived Service
Quality and Satisfaction: Islamic bank in Malaysia is a study carried
out by Abed Abdeniya, Majid Nokhbeh Zaeim and Bardia Yousef Hakimi. The
study is out to investigate Islamic banking system of Malaysia, how
satisfied customers are and what impact does perceived service quality
has on customer satisfaction. The independent variable here is service
quality, and the dependent variable is customer satisfaction. The
principles of Islamic banking are from Islamic Sharia. The Islamic
Sharia is different as compared to policies of other banks, operating in
Malaysia. Keeping principles of Islam in mind, banks have to make
products. These products either meet customer expectations or exceed
them. Malaysia is an Islamic country, and this strengthens the position
of Islamic banks in Malaysia as compared to other conventional banks.
Islamic banks should pay attention and consider how they can improve
their services and attract more customers. The study uses CARTER
instrument for the measurement of perceived quality and the level of
customer satisfaction. This study also explains in detail the difference
there is between perceived quality and customer satisfaction. Using the
CARTER instrument, the gap is, to the level of customer satisfaction.
The study defines the relationship between the variables through a
framework. The framework contains component variables like reliability,
empathy, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and compliance. These
component variables are with service expectation and service perception,
which are aligned with customer satisfaction. The study has eight
hypotheses, in which customer expectation and perception are to
reliability, empathy, tangibility, responsiveness and compliance. The
last two hypotheses are about how customer satisfaction is by perceived
service quality and how religion plays a significant role in customer
satisfaction and perceived service quality. The research design is
cross-sectional it uses hypothesis testing and is in a natural
environment. To obtain data, questionnaires are used. Questionnaires
were developed with the help of Othman and Owen`s study. The population
of the study consisted of people utilizing services of Malaysian Banks.
People from three main cities, Kuala Lumpur, Serdang, and Cyberjaya were
used as sample. Online surveys were also used as a way of obtaining
data. To test the obtained data, Statistical Package for Social Sciences
was used. Exploratory Factor Analysis or EFA was used to determine the
validity and reliability of measurement scales. The linearity problem
was determined by Pearson correlation analysis and descriptive
statistics. All the expectation variables were reliable. To analyze
hypothesis, paired sampling was used, in which upper and lower standard
deviation was shown. The conclusions show that banking customers in
Malaysia prefer products which are of low price but high quality. A
change has in the expectation of customers, because of the rise in the
use of the internet and communication devices. To satisfy the customer,
has become a main goal for marketers, as customer satisfaction in turn
guarantees profits and customer retention. The hypotheses tested proved
to be positive. There was observed a significant difference between
customer perception and expectation in relation to compliance,
assurance, reliability, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (Abedniya,
Zaeim & Hakimi, 2011, pg 1-22).
Measuring customer delight: A model for the banking industry is a
study carried out by Syed Akif Hasan, Saquib Raheem and Muhammad Imtiaz
Subhani. Customer satisfaction is a thoroughly researched the topic and
is the importance by marketers and banks. Customer satisfaction is as a
tool for attaining competitive advantage in the complicated business
world. Every company or organization is trying to satisfy its customers
and bring them happiness, not through their products and services only
but also through doing something that no other bank is doing. The
research carried out in this study used exploratory investigation.
Exploratory investigation was done by interviewing 350 customers open
ended questionnaires were used as a tool for obtaining data.
Questionnaires contained situations through which customers told the
services that they received delight from most. The information that the
sample population provided, pointed towards many ways in which, certain
bank services and products made them feel excited. Data was also
obtained from the sample population by conducting interviews with people
like Housewives, Businessmen, Employees of different companies and
students. Genders interviewed were male and female. Interviews were
conducted to discuss the sample population`s responses to questionnaires
earlier. This gave both the researcher and the sample population, an
opportunity to express themselves better and to discuss further what
bank products and services delights them the most. This removed any
miscommunication that would have negatively affected the results of the
study. It made them feel more prominent and close to the bank. The study
further developed a customer delight model, which had eight variables,
and these variables were developed by the data obtained from customers.
The eight variables were unusual ambiance, problem solving gestures,
caring, giving undue favor, bypassing the system to help, helpful and
willing to help, prompt feedback and giving a VIP feel. Based on the
customer delight model, eight hypotheses were produced. All the
hypothesis stated that there is a positive relationship between
unusually attractive ambiance, problem solving gestures, caring
behavior, giving undue favor, bypassing the lengthy documentation
procedure, bank employees, prompt feedback, VIP treatment and customer
delight. Through T-Test applied on the data obtained from questionnaires
and interviews, it was concluded that the variables of the customer
delight model have a positive impact on how the daily routine of a bank
works. It can also be concluded from the study that if the eight
variables of the customer delight model are on the bank`s services and
products, customer delight can be easily achieved (Hasan, Raheem &
Subhani, 2011, pg 1-9).
Customer Satisfaction Analysis: Identification of Key drivers is a
study carried out by Michael Conklin, Ken Pwaga and Stan Lipovetsky. In
this study, the key drivers of customer satisfaction are in relation to
Kano theory and the relationship between product quality and customer
satisfaction is using the Cooperative Game Theory and Risk analysis.
Further, this study uses Shapley Value, and Attributable Risk techniques
to identify what are the priorities that drive customer satisfaction or
what dissatisfies them. Using the Shapely Value in key Dis satisfier
Analysis, the dependent variable is the overall satisfaction and the
independent variables are the numerous attributes of influences. When
researching customer satisfaction, the independent and the dependent
variables are using ordinal scales, which are 1 to 10, 1 being the best
and 10 being the worst. The Shapely Value identifies the dis satisfier
which needs the attention of the management. Using different
combinations of predictor variables, the effect of the dependent
variable is. The advantages of using Shapely Value, practical in nature,
are in the study. Through the recommendations, the managers can use the
best driver in order to retain and satisfy the customer. The study
concludes that the key to customer delight is the ability for an
organization of improving their performance needed in key areas.
Organization also need to follow up the changes that they have
implemented (Conklin, Powaga & Lipovetsky, 2005, pg 819-827).
Customer Delight-A Milestone for the Banks is a study carried out by
Dr. R.K. Uppal. Globalization has posed many challenges for the
competition and the survival of organizations. The paper examines
customer delight with respect to different banking services throughout
the province of India, Punjab. The main objective of the study is to
determine what products and services cause customer delight and what
could be done to improve bank services. To obtain data surveys were
used, which were 384 in number. These 384 surveys were divided among
three banks in Punjab. Percentage and ranking methods were used to
analyze data. Likert scale was used, which had five points strongly
disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, and strongly agree. The sample
population was divided with respect to categories like Bank Group,
Gender, Educational Level, Occupation, Income Level and Present Age.
Results showed that E-channels are strengthening relations between
employees and customers. Data obtained showed that customers of foreign
and public banks are more satisfied with E-channels females are more
satisfied than men. The age group of 26-35 customers was more satisfied.
Public sector customers, especially females, strongly agree that
E-channels are fulfilling their requirements in E-age. Significant
percentage of people from the private sector banks agreed that because
of E-channels, the quality of customer service in banks has improved.
Populations from all the banks strongly agree that, in this competitive
and global environment, India needs E-channels. Majority of public
sector customers agrees that to the transformation in banks E-channels
banking is an effective tool. Population from all three banks agreed
that technology is a necessity, if a bank wants to survive in this
competitive and advance age. It can also be concluded from the study
that behavior of employees of the e-bank is much better than that of
traditional banks. Customers are shifting to e-banking from traditional
banking because of the level of performance. According to opinions of
customers, shifting from traditional channels to E-channels allowed,
smooth free, flow information, speeds delivery time, make transactions
easier, reduces error, checks frauds, customize solutions, immediate
response gives timely better solutions, improves personal efficiency,
makes work easier, provides economic service, provides better quality
products and service provides innovative products. The top ranked reason
were checks frauds and improves personal efficiency. Customers preferred
functions like balance enquiry, cash withdrawal, deposits, mini
statements, request for bill payment, request issue of cheque book,
transfer of funds and loan payments through E-channels. At the end of
the study, there are suggestions for banks to improve their services.
The suggestions include customer education or counseling, gearing up
grievances, greater trust in staff, mechanism and automation, flexible
working time, personal services, staff training and simplified rules or
formats (Uppal, 2011, pg 1-12).
Customer Devotion
Driven by Devotion-How consumers Interact with their objects of Devotion
is a study carried out by Elisabeth A. Pichler and Andrea Hemetsberger.
The study explores consumer behavior through emotions, in case of
customer devotion and to contradict the consumer-object relationships
with respect to one-sided and self-centered perspective. The researcher
has given examples of past behavior, which relate to customer devotion
like high effective commitment, high prosperity to act the way one wants
to or the way one is and high involvement. There are two main elements
of customer devotion it is an emotional concept, illustrating
relationships between consumers, objects or activities and it also means
fervor or zeal. Customer devotion has as a distinct concept by Pemental
and Reynolds. They introduced the concept of Devottes, which means those
customers who are of loyal in a way that they have an emotional
attachment with a brand or product. This attachment can be spiritual or
religious. Pichler and Hemetsberger points out that the emotional
attachment customers hold with objects have been ignored by the works of
literature. The study further goes on defining the acts of devotion.
Literature review suggests that there are many ways in which customers
express their devotion and attachment to brands or objects. The way in
which customers show their feelings is very subtle. Researchers have
found out that when customers express their devotion to an object, they
lean against that object and touch it affectionately. Customers show
their devotion by investing time and money, doing so willingly and
happily. When customers show their devotion toward an object, it also
helps in preserving the sacredness of that object this way the object
stays unique. The study concludes that there needs to be further
research needs on how consumers display their acts of devotion and what
benefits does these acts of devotion hold for organizations in the long
run (Pichler & Hemetsberger, 2008, pg 439-444).
A model for consumer devotion: affective commitment with proactive
sustaining behaviors is a study carried out by Ronald W. Pimentel and
Kristy E. Reynolds. The study begins by defining what customer devotion
is. According to the researchers, customer devotion means that a
customer is with an object or brand that poor quality, high prices or a
bad scandal may not affect their loyalty towards the object or the brand
such loyalty is to be extreme loyalty. Customer devotion provokes the
consumer to buy baseball caps, t-shirts, bats and accessories that they
sometime do not even need, just to display the brand and prove their
loyalty. Customer devotion, through early research, has in fan behavior,
such as sports fan or movies fan. Sports fan like football fans tend to
buy stuff that would show others which team they support. Similarly,
movie fans would buy posters, t-shirts and DVDs to show others what they
like and to objects, in order to show their devotion and commitment. The
study further develops a model for consumer commitment that starts with
antecedents. Antecedents mean that there were people who bought brands
to show support for their football teams or to fit in a group. The
antecedents have further elements commitment, sacralization, affective
commitment, outcomes, desacralization and proactive sustaining behavior.
Commitment in the sense of calculative and normative meant that
customers were devoted to a brand because of the brand`s features and
benefits that they had. Normative customers related brands with family
traditions or values. Sacralization means that holding a brand close to
one self because of a unique value that it holds. Affective commitment
means that a customer feels a shared value with a brand, as a football
fan might. Outcomes mean that customers or fans did not leave the brand
in its bad times. Fans hold on to their football teams in bad times,
because they are and they know that their team is going to rise again.
Desacralization means that brands lose their position in the eyes of
their customers, because things went wrong in public relations, or the
brand performed too poorly for customers to hold on any longer. Among
the model, two elements are most important, sacralization and proactive
sustaining behaviors. If organizations or brands are able to encourage
proactive sustaining behaviors in customers, then brands can enjoy
benefits like loyalty and devoted customers. The limitations of the
study were that the model was a conceptual one and was tested through
qualitative or quantitative data. For questionnaires or can be out to
the for and (Pimentel & Reynolds, 2004, pg 1-48).
Determinant Attributes of Customer Choice of Banks, Supply Mortgage
Products, is a study carried out by Irfan Ahmed, Saira Ashfaq, Shahid
Mahmood and Umar Farooq. The main aim of the study is to find the main
characteristics that define the choice of customers, when selecting a
bank for supplying the mortgage products. In the methodology section of
the study, questionnaires have been used, 400 in number and are
distributed to bank customers. The literature review of the study shows
past researchers related to four variables of the study. These variables
include cost of bank, quality of services, confidence of customer in the
services of the bank, and the convenience of customer using mortgage
product supplied by banks. The results obtained from the questionnaire
were analyzed using the ordinary least square scale, also known as OLS,
and correlation techniques. The data was arranged statistically before
being tested. After the data was tested, it was concluded that the
variables used in the study, quality of services, cost of mortgage
product, trust and confidence of customers is build by the bank and also
depends on the convenience of customers. The study also lays down the
foundation for further studying, using the independent variables of the
study. Future researches could know more about the important factors
which contribute in a customer’s choice of a bank, when buying
mortgage products. (Ahmed, Ashfaq, Mahmood & Farooq, 2012, pg 287-296).
Preferences, constraints or schemes of devotion? Exploring Norwegian
mothers’ withdrawals from high-commitment careers is a study carried
out by Sigtona Halrynjo and Selma Therese Lyng. Even though,
organizations have been putting the focus on balancing life and work of
both gender employees, females still face problems more than male do.
The aim of the study is to emphasize and give an explanation for
constraints and individual preferences. The constraints or the
difficulties that individuals face when they are working in
organizations are defined. Also, it is inquired from employees whether,
on occasions, they prefer families over work, or work over family. The
sample population consists of females living in a welfare state in the
state women are expected to reduce work commitments after childbirth.
The study aims to investigate how devoted these mothers are to their
work. The study investigates the culture rationalize and why the shift
occurs for women, after childbirth. The study also investigates how
parental leaves, granted by the organization is helpful for working
parents. The study also analyzes and demonstrates that by granting
work-life balance opportunities for men and women, organizations are
playing an important role in the lives of employees. Employee job
satisfaction and productivity go up when they achieve work-life balance
(Halrynjo & Lyng, 2009, pg 321-343).
The mismanagement of customer loyalty is an article written by Werner
Reinartz and V.Kumar. The article states that loyal customers are
misunderstood as they are considered to be the ones who are cheaper to
serve and would pay willingly more than others. Companies need to
understand that there is a link between loyalty and profits and that
link needs to be better understood by companies. Companies should know
that when measuring costs associated with customer devotion programs,
the company should not include advertising, services, sales force and
organizational expenses, or else the company would end up eliminating
the devotion programs that they created for customers. To identify true
and devoted customers, companies need to judge customer by just more
than their actions. If a customer is regularly buying a brand, does not
concludes that he/she is loyal. It may explain that he finds the brand
affordable but may switch to another brand if presented with the offer.
The claim that loyal customers pay higher for the same bundle of good
that they buy from a company is not necessarily true. Every company
should adopt to the idea that customer devotion is managed the same way
that the company manages profits. Meaning, company customers are
important too like company profits. The study formulates a graph which
shows that keeping a customer with a company is expensive in the start
but the cost of keeping that customer goes down, as the customer gets
loyal and the profits are stable. The study also shows a graph,
illustrating the percentage of customers that are loyal and dividing
them in four categories, which are high profitability, low
profitability, long-term customers and short-term customers (Reinartz &
Kumar, 2010, pg 1-12).
Customer loyalty and the elements of User experience are an article
written by Jesse J Garrett. The writer states that, in relationships,
bonds and fulfillment is the key. He tends to explore how these bonds
and fulfillment can be applied to products and customer loyalty or
devotion. The writer also explains the many good reasons of why should
companies explore and research ways in which they can pursue a
relationship with their loyal customers. Acquiring customers, as
mentioned earlier in the literature review, is costly. Keeping customers
loyal allows companies to minimize the cost. Loyal customers can also be
used as a marketing weapon. The writer has developed a five step
strategy to create user experiences. The five steps are surface,
skeleton, structure, scope and strategy. The elements of user experience
are also divided in two categories. The first category being
functionality-oriented this has sensory design as the surface. In the
second part which is the skeleton, there is interface design, which is
the information design part. The third part is a structure which
contains interaction design. The fourth part is scope which has
functional specifications, and the last part is a strategy which has
user needs and product objectives. In the information-oriented category,
the surface part is same as the functionality-oriented category, which
is sensory design. The second past is the skeleton which contains
navigation design the third part is the structure which contains
information architecture. The fourth part is scope which contains,
content requirements and the last part is the same as
functionality-oriented strategy which contains user needs and product
objectives. The articles further states that if customers do not have a
positive experience with the organization`s product, they would not be
able to devote themselves to the brand. The articles also states that
the foundation of every user experience is strategy and the strategy
must balance business objectives with the expectations and the needs of
the customers, if the company wants to be successful. User needs may
refer to the experiences or emotional attachment that a customer has
attached with a brand or object. Experiences of customers can’t be
designed as they are personal and emotional sometimes even ephemeral.
Companies could design their products in a way which would automatically
devote customers towards their brand and trigger an emotional attachment
(Garrett, 2006).
Service Recovery Strategies
The effects of failure recovery strategies on customer behaviors via
complainants` perceptions of justice dimensions in a bank are a study
carried out by Ekrem Gengiz, Bunyamin ER and Ahmet Kurtaran. The main
aim of the study is to investigate how recovery strategies impact
customer satisfaction do they impact positively or negatively. It
further investigates how justice in service recovery s perceived and how
it impacts satisfaction and behavioral outcomes. Random sampling was
done as part of methodology of the study. Customers were chosen at
random and were 408 in total customers were chosen from four prominent
Turkish banks. The model that was used to check the reliability and
validity of the scale were structural questions. The study also produced
a measurement model which had constructs like procedural justice,
interactional justice, and distributive justice, and overall firm
satisfaction, satisfaction with recovery, firm loyalty, compensation,
effort, facilitation, promptness, apology and empathy. The results of
the study indicated that recovery strategies have a direct impact on the
perception of justice. The results also concluded that the justice
perceptions have an impact on the satisfaction of customers it also
provokes loyalty among customers for the firm, and employees feel loyal
to the organization too (ER & Kutaran, 2007, pg 174-188).
Justice Oriented recovery Strategies and Customer Retention in the
Retail Banking Industry in Malaysia is a study carried out by Nek Kamal
and Yeop Yunus. Service recovery with respect to customer retention has
become a subject of interest and research since the past few years.
However, even though many researchers have been carried out relevant to
the topic, there is still not much known about how customer retention in
organizations is by service recovery strategies. Service organizations
have been making efforts to satisfy and retain customers but, failures
resulting from services are also inevitable. If organizations were not
able to make effective service recovery strategies, then the customer is
most likely to move to the competitor. This is the reason why most
service companies were losing customers and revenues in Malaysia. In
this study, three dimensions were tested under the justice oriented
recovering strategy. Data was obtained by circulating 28-item
questionnaires. The sample population used in the study is post graduate
students, who studied in the public universities of Malaysia.
Respondents among the sample population were randomly selected. After
the data obtained from the students was tested, it was found it that all
the strategies were correlated with service recovery or customer
retention strategies. The data was tested using multiple regressions,
and the customer retention variance was 63.4% of the customer retention
strategies. The study shows how service recovery strategies have
positively influenced in retaining customers. The study also laid the
ground for future studies in the field of law, business and educational
services. It was also recommended that a different tool should be used
in order to get more reliable results (Kamal & Yunus, 2009, pg 212-228).
Potential Antecedents and Outcomes of Frontline Employees` Service
Recovery Performance are a study carried out by Nik Rozana Nik Mohd
Masdek, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz and Khairil Wahidin Awang. The bridge between
a firm and its valued customers is the frontline employees of an
organization. Customers perception of how well a firm performs, is on
the quality service provided by the firm’s employees. The main aim of
this study is to explore the antecedents which may have an impact on the
performance of frontline employees, with respect to service recovery
performance. The study also defines the potential impact that service
recovery performance may have on selected outcomes. With the help of
literature review, hypotheses have been formed. Hypotheses are relevant
to antecedents and their potential impact on outcomes. The study also
discusses ground for future research on the topic and a conceptual
framework has by the researchers for better understanding. The
conceptual model in the study first shows a perceived managerial
attitude, which has two main elements, customer service orientation of
the firm and rewarding customer service excellence. These two elements
are with service recovery performance which has many two negative and
six negative elements linked to it. The two negative elements are
intentions to resign and role ambiguity. The positive elements shown in
the conceptual framework are job satisfaction, training, empowerment,
teamwork, organizational commitment, trait competitiveness and
motivation. The first hypothesis of the study states that customer
orientation and service recovery performance of frontline staff has a
positive relationship. The second hypothesis states that service
recovery performance of frontline staff and rewarding service excellence
has a positive relationship. The third hypothesis states, that training
of frontline staff and service recovery performance, have a positive
relationship. Hypothesis four shows that empowerment of frontline staff
and service recovery performance has a positive relationship. Hypothesis
five states that teamwork in the front line staff and service recovery
performance have a positive relationship. Hypothesis six shows that
ambiguity in service recovery and the performance of frontline staff has
a negative relationship. Hypothesis seven shows that organizational
commitment of the front line staff and service recovery performance have
a positive relationship. Hypothesis eight shows that trait
competitiveness in frontline staff and recovery performance has a
positive relationship. Hypothesis nine shows that motivation of the
front line staff and recovery performance have a positive relationship.
Hypothesis ten shows that front line’s staffs’ intention to resign
has a negative relationship with service recovery performance.
Hypothesis eleven shows that an effective front line staff and service
recovery performance has a positive relationship. The study is
conceptually , but there is room for further empirical study in the
future. The study has proposed ideas for future research, questionnaires
with Likert-scale can be used, which would be quantitative in nature,
and would serve as a surveying tool. The questionnaire would be divided
in categories to better understand the content being studied, and to
gather accurate information. Questionnaires should be given to front
line employees where they can use the self-evaluating method and
evaluate their own performance. Before analyzing the data, the data
should be tested for validity and reliability. Cronbach’s Alpha would
be calculated to determine the validity and sure that the constructs
fall in an acceptable range. To achieve face validity, the
questionnaires filled by sample population should be showed to scholars
and researchers to know about their opinions regarding the methodology.
The paper concludes by stating that it has linked service recovery
performance with many constructs and variables, under the heading of
perceived managerial attitudes. The paper aims to lay the foundation for
further and quantitative or qualitative research on the same topic.
Managers should know how to manage their employees and customers and how
to benefit from customer perception regarding employees (Masdek, Aziz &
Awang, 2011, pg 114-139).
The effect of customer age and recovery strategies in a service failure
setting are an article written by Concepcion Varela-Neira, Rodolfo
Vazquez-Casielles and Victor Iglesias. The main aim of the study is to
investigate the relationship between a service failure, what happens to
customer expectations after a service failure, what emotions does he go
through and what are the recovery strategies made for such a service
failure, in order to satisfy the customer. Hypothesis one states that if
the process fails, then it would cause more negative emotions among
customers than there is a chance of outcome failing. Hypothesis two
states that the intensity of negative emotions diminish as the age of
the customer increases. Hypothesis three states that the relationship of
failure and negative emotions is moderated by age moderators. Hypothesis
four states that service failure cause the intensity of negative
emotions to go up, and these negative emotions impact the satisfaction
being received from service recovery. Hypothesis five states that when
the service provider offers compensation for service failure to the
customer, the customer is more likely to be satisfied from the service.
The hypothesis also states another situation in which the customer is
less satisfied because the service recovery did not offer compensation.
The sixth hypothesis shows that a customer is more satisfied when the
service provider apologizes for the failed service he provided. The
hypothesis also states another situation in which the customer is less
satisfied with the service provider as he has not offered an apology.
Hypothesis seven states that if the service provider responses quickly
to the failed service provided, the customer is more satisfied. Whereas,
if the service provider does not pay any attention to an urgent basis to
the failed service provided, then the customer is not . Hypothesis eight
states that a quick response from the service provider would increase
the chances of the customer being satisfied from an apology or
compensation. Whereas, if the service provider does not respond quick,
no apology or compensation is to the customer, then the service provider
would have a negative impact on the customer. The target population of
this study was the people who experienced problems with their service
provider in the past. The data was collected through interviews, using a
structured survey, in Spain. Interviewers were trained on how to
interview retail banking customers, and they were given rules like not
being able to interview more than one individual at a time. The
interview had questions related to customer age, service failure,
negative emotions, compensation, apology, satisfaction with the service
recovery and speed of the service recovery. The data obtained was
measured using multi-item scales. To test the hypothesis, multiple
regression analysis was used, with respect to the age and failure and
the intensity of emotion. The test showed that the hypotheses were
positive and the relationships depicted in the hypothesis were
perceptions of many customers (Neira, Casielles & Iglesias, 2010, pg
32-48).
Adaptive versus Proactive Behavior in Service Recovery: The Role of
Self-Managing Teams is a study carried out by Ad de Jong and Ko de
Ruyter. In this study, the researchers have developed a model, showing
adaptive versus proactive recovery behavior, in service recovery
options. These behaviors are by self-managing teams. Data was obtained
from employees and customer. Secondary data was collected from archives.
The results of the study showed that the independent group-level effects
are along with adaptive and proactive recovery behavior. It also shows
that perceptual consensus has incremental value and they can explain
service recovery performance. The study also provides empirical evidence
that external performance measures are by adaptive and proactive
recovery behavior. Adaptive performance, higher levels, impact proactive
recovery behavior and influence the parameters which are customer-based.
Customer’s rates contain more contribution from the employee’s
proactive recovery behavior (Jong & Ruyter, 2005, pg 457-490).
References
Abedniya, A. et al. (2011) Investigating the Relationship between
Customers’ Perceived Service Quality and Satisfaction: Islamic Bank in
Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 21 (4), p.1-22.
Ahmed, I. et al. (2012) Determinant Attributes of Customer Choice of
Banks, Supplying Mortgage Products. Journal of Economics and Behavioral
Studies, 4 (5), p.287-296.
CENGIZ, E. et al. (2007) THE EFFECTS OF FAILURE RECOVERY STRATEGIES ON
CUSTOMER BEHAVIOURS VIA COMPLAINANTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF JUSTICE
DIMENSIONS IN BANKS. Banks and Bank Systems, 2 (3), p.174-188.
Conklin, M. et al. (2005) Customer Satisfaction Analysis: Identification
of Key Drivers. European Journal of Operational Research, 154 (3),
p.819-827.
Halrynjo, S. and Lyng, S. (2009) Preferences, constraints or schemas of
devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers’ withdrawals from
high-commitment careers. The British Journal of Sociology, 60 (2),
p.321-343.
Hasan, S. et al. (2011) Measuring Customer Delight: A Model for Banking
Industry. European Journal of Social Sciences, 22 (4), p.1-9.
Jong, A. and Ruyter, K. (2005) Adaptive versus Proactive Behavior in
Service Recovery: The Role of Self-Managing Teams. Decision Sciences, 35
(3), p.457-491.
Kamal, N. and Yunus, Y. (2009) Justice Oriented Recovery Strategies and
Customer Retention in The Retail Banking Industry in Malaysia.
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Masdek, N. et al. (2011) Potential Antecedents and Outcomes of Frontline
Employees’ Service Recovery Performance. Int. Journal of Economics and
Management, 5 (1), p.114-139.
Neira, C. et al. (2010) The effects of customer age and recovery
strategies in a service failure setting. Journal of Financial Services
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