National Racial and Ethnic Differences
A race can be described as a group that is made up of individuals who have biologically transmitted attributes that are described as socially considerable. Common unique traits comprise of skin color, shape of facial appearance, texture of the hair, as well as type of the body. Over many generations, the physical surroundings that people survived in shaped their physical differences. In addition, intermarriage and migration spread hereditary characteristics all over the globe (Janice, 1975).
Ethnicity, on the other hand, is a cultural legacy shared by a particular community. Objective principles are those of cultural practices, ancestry, language, as well as mode of dressing while subjective principles are those that involve the integration of an idiosyncratic identity. From time to time, the objective factors may be lost via absorption but the subjective recognition is still there. Race is biological while ethnicity is cultural however, these two usually go hand in hand. In addition, ethnicity may at times be lost communities do not pay much attention to their ethnic origins (Janice, 1975).
An ethnic minority also known as racial minority is a group of people well known by cultural or physical qualities, who are disadvantaged in a social context. Minority groups have two distinguishing characteristics and these are, they preserve a distinguishing uniqueness, and are considered inferior via the community stratification organization. Even as they are quite a small part of the people, there are exclusions, for instance the women in Canada and blacks in South Africa (Janice, 1975).
Ethnicity and Race in Canada
The being of “vertical mosaic” is sometimes considered as a founded first ground in the study on stratification in Canada. An important understanding has put an emphasis on mobility opportunities restricted by ethnic source as well as immigrant group attachment. Canada is a place where ethnic structure is exceptionally diverse (Janice, 1975). A Black person in Canada in the nineteen forties at times meant treatments that were less civilly than a prisoner of war in Germany was. Despite the fact that segregation has reduced in the present day and race associations in other parts of the globe are not as good, people are well conversant with racial discrimination (Janice, 1975).
Ethnic Stratification in Canada
Since Canada is among the countries with the most varied multiethnic communities in the modern globe, it exhibits a structure of ethnic stratification. By observing the ethnic composition of the elites in the political scene, it is evident that Quebecers mostly serve in the positions with the highest ranks in the federal government and this includes the Prime Minister. By also observing the patterns of housing, it is obvious that neighborhoods are also segregated based on ethnicity and race. All this indicates a clear sign of ethnic hierarchy in Canada (Janice, 1975).
In the 19[th] century, scientists created a three-part system of racial categorization, including Mongoloid, Negroid and Caucasian. Even if research proves that pure races do not exist, cultural meanings still function as if the dissimilarities are significant, more so if they maintain a structure of social disparity. In the past years, racial mixing has occurred all over the world. In Canada where there is a blend of ethnic as well as racial categories, thirty-eight percent maintain many origins (Janice, 1975).
Immigration has significantly improved the racial multiplicity of the population in Canada. Since the nineteen sixties, when unfair selection strategies were abolished, queries about the impacts of immigration on the unification of the Canadian people have become more outstanding (John, 1965). Even if few expect a collapse in social unity due to ethnic diversity, fears of racial strains have been articulated from a number of political viewpoints by some commentators, consisting of activists for minority rights as well as activists of decrease in immigration.
The transfer toward non-European bases of migrants to Canada after the nineteen sixties was noticeable. Immigrants that came in before the year nineteen seventy were mostly from Europe, and from the nineteen fifties to the nineteen sixties, a large number was from Eastern and Southern Europe, and others from northern Europe, the United States as well as the United Kingdom (John, 1965). Among those that arrived in the nineteen sixties or earlier, not more than 10.2 percent were visible or racial minorities (supported on Census data taken in the year 2001). However, this number rises radically to 51.8 percent for the arrivals in the years of 1970s, sixty-five percent for the arrivals in the years of 1980s and almost seventy-five percent of the arrivals in the 1990s. As a result, visible or racial minorities have developed from comprising below 1 percent of the inhabitants in the year nineteen seventy one to 13.4 percent in the year two thousand and one. The biggest groups are South Asians that make up 3.1 percent, Chinese making up 3.4 percent as well as Blacks who make up 2.2 percent.
The rising effect of racial differences in Canada is overstated due to the absorption of minorities in particular immigrant-intensive towns for example Vancouver and Toronto. In the Toronto Metropolitan region, ethnic minorities comprised of about three percent of the entire inhabitants of 2.6 million in the year 1971, but by the year 2001, the number had raised to 36.8 percent of the total 4.6 million. The latest Statistics Canada research has predicted that by the year 2017, at what time racial minorities will comprise of twenty percent of the total population in Canada, both Vancouver as well as Toronto will possibly be “majority minority” towns. Ethnoracial variety may negatively have an effect on a society`s interrelations in two manners. When the result of diversity is inequality, this may weaken the logic of justice and inclusion amongst groups and individuals. Racial differences may also deteriorate the unity of commitments, values as well as social associations among groups and individuals, in that way having an effect in their ability to work together in the search for common goals. Each element is significant in its own way, and they may have a joint result on social unity (Gordon, 1979).
In spite of the fact that ethnic associations in Canada are visualized as generating a cultural mosaic also known as the “melting pot,” native Indians as well as Inuit are clearly, at the most disadvantage. Research according to Gordon (1979), has established that the natives, as a community, are by themselves at the very bottom of the Vertical Mosaic. In the same way, still the latest and serious dispute to Porter`s ethnic-mosaic theory comments “the extraordinary persistence of distorted occupational distributions of the native population,” whose conditions are recognized as “the most deprived in [the] country” (Darroch, 1979:9, 11). Earlier studies, on the other hand, raise more issues than they answer on ethnic stratification, mainly with consideration to native/non-native degrees of differences. The biggest gap in the facts occurs from the failure in concentrating to women as to men. Porter (1965), for instance, in his debate of Ethnic link and Occupational division, allocates one tiny table and scarcely two sections to the women. Darroch (1979) re-examines Porter`s facts for the years 1931, 1951 as well as 1961 and Forcese`s (1975) facts for men as well as women joined as of the year 1971.
Ethnic Conflict in Canada
The Canadian occurrence of ethnic conflict in an independent framework has been one that is more difficult than a relaxed witness might think. Various different political organizations in place have barred a resolution (Bond & Perry, 1970). The situation in Quebec is a reflection to the state of affairs in Canada as a whole, a nation with a loose integration of provinces, areas with distinctive interests as well as contradictory histories (John, 1965).
The amount of ethnic conflict in this country increased as more and more French Canadians in Québec began expressing their need to be accepted as among the founding states of Canada. There, the insight of disparity of two divisions was most vivid. The English in Québec who held monetary power, were generally Protestant along with speaking only English. The French people who were barred from economic power, were Catholics who spoke French but had to have an employment comprehension of English. This showed the way to an additional rise in force of ethnic conflict that became aggressive with actions of the Front de Libération du Québec, FLQ. A number of Québec nationalists deemed the situation unbearable and wanted the disconnection of Québec from Canada. The creation of the Parti Québécois, P.Q., justified the wish for disconnection. The separatists did not need to hide any longer as well as act as an underground organization. Their grounds became genuine and the hostility of conflict reduced (Donald and LeVine, 1972).
The force of ethnic conflict is as well considerably high among the indigenous population as well as the rest of Canada. This is so for the reason that the Aboriginals make up a fragment of the Canadian residents and since they identify to be in a lesser spot. As noted by Betzig (1993), the amount of conflict has build up since efforts were made to join the disagreements of a variety of local populations. On condition that the Federal as well as a variety of Provincial governments deal with keeping the conflicts distance, the amount of conflict is not going to rise as much as if the Aboriginals are brought together (Bond & Perry, 1970).
In the 1970s, scholars examined the various ethnic societies in Canada, and observed the Canadian society as an ethnic mosaic made up of several tiles located next to one other. Some researchers observed how these societies were distressed with survival in Canada that was a variation in focus from the British subjugated surroundings that observed these societies as a danger (Bond & Perry, 1970). Ukrainians, Aboriginals as well as Mennonites were cases of rural agricultural societies, particularly in the west, which were capable of living their open independent, lives. These communities had their focus on preserving their personal ethnic individualities via their distinctive work, languages, values as well as religions (Donald and LeVine, 1972).
As Canada turned out to be more urbanized, additional ethnic groups continued to increase for instance, the Jews, Asians as well as the blacks resided in city centers, but were frequently separated residentially due to their distinct race, status or religion. These communities desired to defend themselves to stay alive and maintained each other inside their community in an effort to offset the outcomes of discrimination as well as prejudice. They developed different identities via residential separation, race, occupation or religion, putting an emphasis on distinct respected languages, mutual cultural distinctiveness, as well as beliefs (David, 1993). When these distinctive cultural, ethnic and religious communities moved to cities, and worked together with others at their places of work, schools as well as plays, they changed to more ideological and psychological means of ethnic recognition. More and more race has turned out to be a significant identity aspect, particularly as minorities that are more visible have moved to Canada. The enclosure of a diverse variation of religion, dress and culture goes on to induce Canadians to discuss their disparities as well as address their cultural conflict (Donald and LeVine, 1972).
Evidences of Prejudice and Discrimination
In a report that was acquired in August 13, 2012, some boys were not allowed to take part in soccer tournaments by the United Summer Soccer Association due to a contentious statute from the Indo- Canadian Soccer Association. In other news, an adolescent Black girl was a victim of race-based assault, harassment as well as bullying in a learning institution on Montréal`s South Shore and given ten thousand dollars in compensation by the Quebec Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission.
Differences and Similarities of racial discrimination in Canada as compared to the United States
Ethnic discrimination and racism in the United States has been a key concern ever since the colonial and the slave age. Lawful endorsed racial discrimination weighed down on African Americans, Native Americans, Latin Americans as well as Asian Americans. Law in matters of immigration, of literacy, citizenship, voting rights, criminal procedure as well as land acquisition had an advantage on the European Americans (mainly Anglo Americans) over time expanding from the seventeenth century to the nineteen sixties. Several non-Protestant European migrant communities, principally Irish Americans, American Jews, Italian Americans and other immigrants from other places, experienced xenophobic segregation as well as additional forms of unfairness in American society (David, 1993).
Just like in Canada, racial discrimination based on the skin color is greatly observed. I n the U.S the blacks are highly segregated in the learning institutions and churches as well as their places of work. There are some residence that only consist of black people and in most of these the rate of crimes are high since most people are suffering from unemployment due to the fact that they cannot earn a decent employment because they are black. Blacks also consist of a minority race in Canada.
In the United States, there are strict laws that prevent racial discrimination in the workplace. The most significant law that covers racial discrimination in the place of work is the Civil Rights Act of 1964 — in particular, Title seven of that act: it sternly forbids all types of discrimination based on color, race, sex, religion or national origin in every aspect of employment.
Racial discrimination hinders economic growth and that is why it is advisable to fight it. Therefore, governments all over the world including the United States are coming up with strict acts to fight it. All the others including Canada where this discrimination is greatly seen should do the same and this will give all the people equal chances to work and therefore improve on the economies.
Betzig. L. (1993). Sex, succession, and stratification in the first six civilizations: How powerful men reproduced, passed power on to their sons, and used power to defend their wealth, women and children. In L. Ellis (Ed.), Social stratification and socioeconomic inequality: A comparative biosocial analysis (pp. 37-74). New York: Praeger.
Bond, J. C. & Perry, P. (1970). Is the black male castrated? In T. Cade (Ed.), The Black woman (pp. 115-118). New York: New American Library.
David, B. A. (1993). Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate. New York: Columbia University Press.
Donald, C. T. and LeVine, R. A. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of Conflict, Ethnic Attitudes, and Group Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gordon, D. A. (1979). “Another look at ethnicity, stratification and social mobility in Canada.” Canadian Journal of Sociology 4 (Winter) :1-25.
Janice, F. M. (1975). “Discrimination-A Manifestation of Male Market Power?” In Cynthia Lloyd, ed. Sex, Discrimination and the Division of Labor, New York: Columbia University Press.
John, P. (1965). The Vertical Mosaic: An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
National Racial and Ethnic Differences