A Report on Human Trafficking in USA Submitted By

Table of Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….3
Human Trafficking in USA………………………………………………………………….4
The causes of Human Trafficking in USA…………………………………………………………5
U.S. statistics……………………………………………………………………………………6
Federal Laws Related to Domestic Minority Sex Trafficking…………………………………………..8
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………..10
References………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Human trafficking can be defined as trading of people. It means recruitment, transfer, transportation or receipt of a person by way of threat, fraud, abduction, deception, misuse of power for giving or receiving of payments or other benefits like prostitution, sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude and also removal of organ. It is done by those people who have control over the life of the victim. It is not even done within the domestic territory of a country rather it can be done internationally. Every year thousands of men, women and children are falling into the hands of these human traffickers. UNODC is the guardian of United Nations Convention against Transitional Organized Crime (UNTOC) who assists states to prevent, suppress and punish persons involved in human trafficking. (UNODC, 2012)
According to U.S. Federal law, human trafficking is defined as:
* Sex trafficking. It this commercial sex act is induced by force or fraud or coercion with minors who have not attended the age of 18.
* Slavery. In include transportation, harboring, recruitment of a person by force, fraud, coercion for involuntary servitude, bondage labour, peonage etc. (“Stop Human Trafficking…” 2012)
Human trafficking is a major problem for most of the countries nowadays. In this report we have discussed Human Trafficking position in USA. Though USA is considered as a developed country but there also it is a big problem. We have discussed the reasons behind it. The data available on this purpose has also been analyzed. The measures taken by US government on this matter is also highlighted here.
Human Trafficking in USA:
U.S. Department of Justice has identified human trafficking as the second fastest growing crime of the country. They have considered it as an industry which is approximately of $32 billion value. Trafficking is even taking place in educational institutions. This has prompted the US President Barrack Obama to declare the month of January as National Human Trafficking Awareness month. Over the last decades there were numbers of cases prosecuted on human trafficking in Michigan. Several human trafficking cases are now going to U.S. District Court. (Baldas, 2012)
In U.S. sex trafficking is a major crime. The trafficker uses mostly young girls for this purpose in exchange of some money. Mostly poor, hungry, homeless girls are victimized in this process. These types of people even ask these girls to call them dad. They behave very rudely with these girls. This girls are allowed to meet there family occasionally. Every night they are getting exploited by other men like a slave. All these girls are not arranged only from their domestic country. They are also collected from other foreign countries. It is said that at least 100000 children across the country are trafficking each year. President Obama has passed different policies to handle the problem. He has also granted about six million dollar to build solution. Other then this various persons are trying to aware their family members and their children about human trafficking to minimize crime. (Alcindor, 2012)
It has been estimated by FBI that in 2001 approximately 700000 women and children were trafficked worldwide. UNICEF estimated it as 1.75 million where as IOM estimated as 400000. According to annual report 2005 of U.S. State Departments` every year 600000 to 800000 people are trafficked internationally out of which 14,500 to 17,500 are from U.S. But this data does not show the trafficking for sexual exploitation rather it shows trafficking for forced labor. (“Sex Slaves” 2006)
The causes of Human Trafficking in USA:
The causes can be classified into two groups- local causes and global causes.
Local Causes:
Local causes are like poverty of women, lack of political, social and economic stability in nation, uncertainty of future prospects, armed conflicting situation and oppression of power, domestic violence, disintegrated family structure etc. other than these causes lack of education, sex discrimination and HIV-AIDS can also be considered as other factors.
Global factors:
Lacks of public awareness about human trafficking, a short-cut way of huge earning are major problems in global context. Other than these most of the countries do not have proper anti-traffic legislation. Even those who have such infrastructure, does not permit them to apply in proper way. The other factors are like global economic policies, disintegrated social protection networks and corruption in countries of origin. (Vinoth, 2011)
Some of the facts relating to Human Trafficking are as follows:
* It aims to prostitution, slavery, pornography, bondage labour.
* Average rate of these slaves are $90 around the world.
* Approximately 80% of these people are involved in sexual exploitation and 19% in labour exploitation. There are about 27 million labours around the world came fro this source.
* The trafficking victims are mostly minor i.e. under 18 years.
* These children are being abused every day which are causing commitment of violent crime in future.
* Women through this process are suffering from HIV, tuberculosis, permanent damage in reproductive systems.
* Trafficking victims get scared of asking for help from others because they think them and their family will suffer for this with the trafficker.
* There is only one shelter in U.S. with seven to nine victims, to meet the needs of trafficking victims. (“11 Facts about human trafficking”, n.d.)
U.S. statistics:
The rate of human trafficking is highest in California because of its large population, international borders, large economy, extensive ports and metropolitan regions. The average entry of American to enter in this process is 12 to 14 years. In California there are three states identified from which human trafficking takes place mostly- Los Angeles, San Francisco and San Diego. The internet has made the process of human trafficking most easy. A report of U.S. Department of State, 2010 says that:
* there are 12.3 million slaves around the world,
* percentage of victims identified is 0.4%,
* Ratio to convicted offenders to victims is 8.5 to 100. (“Stop Human Trafficking in California”, 2012)
Source: “America`s Prostituted children”, 2009
A report says that children are targeted by their trafficker to sell themselves to 10 to 15 persons per night. It is estimated that a victim is raped by approximately 6000 buyers during their work period.
Number of Suspected Child Sex Trafficking Victims by Location
Research Site
State
No. of suspected victims
Time Period
Dallas
Texas
150
2007
San Antonio/Bexar Country
Texas
3-4
2005-2008
Fort Worth/Tarrant Country
Texas
29
2000-2008
Las Vegas
Nevada
5,122
1994-2007
Independence/ Kansas City area
Missouri
227
2000-2008
Baton Rouge/New Orleans area
Louisiana
105
2000-2007
Saipan/Rota/Tinian
1
2008
Salt Lake City
Utah
83
1996-2008
Clearwater/ Tampa Bay area
Florida
36
2000-2008
(“America`s Prostituted children” 2009)
Federal Laws Related to Domestic Minority Sex Trafficking
Federal Law
Minimum Sentence
Maximum Sentence
18 U.S.C.§ 2423(a) — Transportation
of a minor with intent for minor to engage in criminal sexual activity
10 years
Life
18 U.S.C. §2422 — Coercion and
enticement (transportation for
prostitution or other criminal sexual
activity)
10 years
Life
TVPA 18 U.S.C.§1591 — Sex
trafficking of children or by force,
fraud, or coercion
15 years (child is under 14)
10 years (between 14-17)
Life (child under 14 or under 18 with
force, fraud, or coercion)
Life (child between 14-17 and no
force, fraud, or coercion used)
18 U.S.C. §2251 — Sexual
exploitation of children
15 years
25 years
35 years
30 years
30 years (first offense)
50 years (one prior conviction)
Life (two or more prior convictions)
Life (if caused the death of the victim
in the course of the crime) or sentence of death
18 U.S.C. §2251A — Selling or buying of children
30 years
Life
18 U.S.C. § 2252 — Certain activities
related to material involved involving
the sexual exploitation of minors
5 years
15 years
None
10 years
20 years
40 years (if prior conviction)
10 years (possession of pornography)
20 years (if prior convictions)
18 U.S.C. § 2252A — Certain
activities related to material
constituting or containing child
pornography
18 U.S.C. § 1466A — Obscene visual
representations of sexual abuse of children.
5 years
15 years
None
10 years
None
10 years
20 years
40 years (if prior conviction)
10 years (possession of pornography)
20 years (if prior conviction)
10 years
20 years (if prior conviction)
(“America`s Prostituted children” 2009)
Conclusion:
Though Government has made different laws but the most important is, the citizen has to be more cautious. They have to open there in eyes and be aware of the problems. If they find anything mysterious they have to inform to police. As a citizen they have to take necessary steps for this. Most of all the facts which are responsible for this i.e. infrastructure of a country have to be improved. If the economic condition of the country can be improved then poverty and malnourishment can be minimized. Automatically the trafficker will not be able to get people for this purpose. They will not get chance to do any fraud with needy people. So the automatic solution will come out.
References:
UNODC. (2012) Human Trafficking, 3(a), retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html accessed on 7th November, 2012.
“Stop Human Trafficking in California”, (2012) retrieved from http://www.caseact.org/learn/humantrafficking/ accessed on 7[th] November, 2012.
Baldas, T. (2012, January1) Human Trafficking a growing crime in the U.S. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2012-01-22-us-human-trafficking_N.htm. accessed on 7th November, 2012.
Alcindor,Y. (2012, September 9) Sex trafficking in the USA hits close to home. USA TODAY. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012/09/27/human-trafficking-in-the-united-states-finds-a-home-in-the-schoolyard/57846054/1 accessed on 7th November, 2012.
“Sex Slaves, Estimating the numbers” 2006, 7[th] February. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/slaves/etc/stats.html accessed on 7th November, 2012
Vinoth, RK. (2011, 2[nd] March) CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING. Retrieved from http://biusvspa.blogspot.in/2011/03/causes-of-human-trafficking.html. accessed on 7th November, 2012.
“11 Facts about Human Trafficking” (n.d.) retrieved from http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-human-trafficking. Accessed on 7[th] November, 2012.
“Stop Human Trafficking in California”, 2012 retrieved from http://www.caseact.org/learn/humantrafficking/ accessed on 7[th] November, 2012.
“America`s Prostituted Children” (May, 2009). The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: (3), p.30. Retrieved from Traffickinghttp://www.sharedhope.org/Portals/0/Documents/SHI_National_Report_on_DMST_2009%28without_cover%29.pdf accessed on 7[th] November, 2012.
“America`s Prostituted Children”. (May, 2009).The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: (1), p.11. Retrieved from http://www.sharedhope.org/Portals/0/Documents/SHI_National_Report_on_DMST_2009%28without_cover%29.pdf accessed on 7[th] November, 2012